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کافی 3: راگ گوڑی

مظفر اے غفار
March 14th, 2008

راگ گوڑی

نی اسیں آؤ کھڈاہاں لُڈی
نوں تار اسیں ڈور گڈی دی، لے کراہاں اُڈی
نی اسیں آؤ کھڈاہاں لُڈی
ساجن دے ہتھ ڈور اساڈی، میں ساجن دی گُڈی
نی اسیں آؤ کھڈاہاں لُڈی
اس ویلے نوں پچھوتاسیں، جاء پوسیں وچ کُھڈی
نی اسیں آؤ کھڈاہاں لُڈی
کہے حسین فقیر سائیں دا، دُنیا جاندی بُڈی
نی اسیں آؤ کھڈاہاں لُڈی

ਰਾਗ ਗੋੜੀ

ਨੀ ਅਸੀਂ ਆਓ ਖਿਡਾਹਾਂ ਲੁੱਡੀ
ਨੋਂ ਤਾਰ ਅਸੀਂ ਡੋਰ ਗੁੱਡੀ ਦੀ,ਲੈ ਕਰਾਹਾਂ ਉੱਡੀ
ਨੀ ਅਸੀਂ ਆਓ ਖਿਡਾਹਾਂ ਲੁੱਡੀ
ਸਾਜਨ ਦੇ ਹੱਥ ਡੋਰ ਅਸਾਡੀ,ਮੈਂ ਸਾਜਨ ਦੀ ਗੁੱਡੀ
ਨੀ ਅਸੀਂ ਆਓ ਖਿਡਾਹਾਂ ਲੁੱਡੀ
ਇਸ ਵੇਲੇ ਨੂੰ ਪੱਛੋਤਾਸੈਂ,ਜਾ ਪੌਸੈਂ ਵਿੱਚ ਖੁੱਡੀ
ਨੀ ਅਸੀਂ ਆਓ ਖਿਡਾਹਾਂ ਲੁੱਡੀ
ਕਹੇ ਹੁਸੈਨ ਫ਼ਕੀਰ ਸਾਈਂ ਦਾ,ਦੁਨੀਆ ਜਾਂਦੀ ਬੁੱਡੀ
ਨੀ ਅਸੀਂ ਆਓ ਖਿਡਾਹਾਂ ਲੁੱਡੀ

Raag Gauri

Ni asin aao khidaahaan luddi

Naun taar dor asin guddi di, lae karaahaan uddi

Ni asin aao khidaahaan luddi

Saajan dae hath dor asaadi, maen saajan di guddi

Ni asin aao khidaahaan luddi

Iss vaelae nun pachotaasaen, jaa’ae posaen vic khuddi

Ni asin aao khidaahaan luddi

Kahae Husayn faqeer Saain da, dunya jaandi buddi

Ni asin aao khidaahaan luddi

GLOSSARY:

Rahaao/refrain (Line 1, etc.):

Ni: interj. A word used to hail or address a women; a hailing word.

Khidaahaan: v.n. Let us play.

Luddi: s.f. A folk dance primarily danced by women in a revolving motion; - noise, uproar. (In Punjabi, even as theatre, dances are ‘played’).

Line 2:

Naun: S.m. Nine; a ninth part, a ninth. Nine is considered as (a) the ‘last’ number or the ‘ultimate’ number especially in calculations in numerology, (b) a mysterious and mystical number. It is used as a number denoting relationships. There are nine kinds of devotion recognized in the old philosophy; nau duaar: the human body has nine orifices or apertures or doors or outlets/inlets, viz. nostrils, the eyes, the ears, the mouth, the penis or vagina, and the anus; nau rattan or nine precious jewels, viz. pearl, ruby, topaz, diamond, emerald, lapis lazuli, coral, sapphire and one called go-meda; - these nine jewels are supposed to be related to the nine planets): nau rattan – the nine jewels, i.e., men of letters at the at the court of Vikramadityya, and later, again at the court of Akbar; - a council of nine wise men: - nau rass: The aggregate of nine kinds of emotive modes (rass): - nau saayak: The designation applied to any of the nine kammi or ‘inferior’ classes/castes viz. [charwaaha] or [chaak] (shepherd, cowherd), maali (gardener), taeli (oilman), jaulaaha (weaver), halwaaee (confectioner), kumhaar (potter), lohar (blacksmith) and naaee (barber); - nau khand: The nine divisions or climes of the earth; - nau grab: the nine planets; - nau lakkha, adj. Worth or possessing nine lakhs (a signification of ultimate wealth); - nau maasa: The feast given in the ninth month of pregnancy – as a human child is in the womb for nine months): nau maahin: The period of nine months: [The multiplication table of 9 is unique (and considered mystical) as the numbers of all multiples add to nine. Examples:

9X3 = 27: 2+7 = 9; 9X5=45: 4+5 =9; 9X12 = 108, 1+8 =9,&c.].

Taar: s.f. Thread, string (which forms usable thread); fiber.

Dor: s.f. Thread, twine, string, cord, line, rope. (Specifically the special string for flying kites).

Karaahaan: v.n. Taken, having taken, have taken.

Line 4:

Saajan: s.m. Lover, beloved, paramour, sweetheart, gallant, husband, lord, master; friend; - God.

Guddi: s.f A four cornered kite; an image; a doll; (met.) thin, emaciated female.

Line 6:

Pachotaasaen: v.n. Will regret, have remorse (for), have compunction, contrition, concern (for), grief, sorrow.

Khuddi: s.f. A small pit or hollow; ditch; a space, interstice, opening, gap, chink; - (met.) the grave.

Line 8:

Faqeer: s.m. |One who lives in poverty [commended in the Quraan (35:16), and Hadith. Prophet Muhammad (m.p.b.u.h.) said, “Poverty is my pride”]. Poverty signifies, (A) material impoverishment deliberately sought which aims at being liberated from the temptation and possession of material things so that one can focus on ceaseless inner struggle; (b) it connotes every virtue which the seeker in the way of God embraces, as through poverty, meaning casing to be self-centered, one can become a channel for God’s grace, and the submitted lover of the Divine Beloved; - categories of faqeers known as malaamati (self-reproaching) or qalandar (who abandon all worldly relations) are usually itinerant darvaeshes who reject conventional mores and mock the patterned life that pertained to the khaanqaah-mazaar (convent-tomb) complexes or shrines. These faqeers are spiritual ecstatics who are also social eccentrics; - one who lives in faqar (pious poverty); -n a mystic lover of God; - one who lives in faqar egotism, lu8st, anger, greed, delusion (including self-delusion), pride, etc.; a devotee; - a religious mendicant; a beggar.

Buddi: (same as dubbi): v.n. Drowned, sunk, immersed, submerged, inundated; lost, ruined, destroyed; absorbed, engrossed; - (met.) (from budd) deep; a lateral extension (of a river (example budda Raavi does not mean old Raavi per se but the deep part of Raavi, which is also the old river).

1 Come girls lets play a dance

2 Nine-fibred the kite’s string, we fly with exuberance

3 Come girls lets play a dance

4 In my beloved’s hand my string, Pm the kite of my Romance

5 Come girls lets play a dance

5 You’ll rue these times, when the ditch will be your circumstance

7 Come girls lets play a dance

8 Says Husayn, the Lord’s devotee, drowning is the world’s heritance

9 Come girls lets play a dance

NOTES:

Rahaao/refrain (Line 1):

Ni asin aao khidaahaan luddi

Come girls lets play a dance

The kaafi starts with an invitation to play. The game is identified as dance of celebration. There is something to celebrate as the kaafi goes on to tell us.

Like most folk dances luddi is danced by a group of women, not by individuals. Yet the individual is not negated. She has a personality within the group. The sense of togetherness, of joint celebration, and of individual prowess melds with joy.

Line 2:

Naun taar dor asin guddi di, lae karaahaan uddi

Nine-fibred the kite’s string, we fly with exuberance

This is a special dance. This luddi is making us soar like a kite. Two kinds of play, of dancing together, and of kite flying, are melded with ease. The only device the poet uses to achieve this effect is the rhyme (of luddi and guddi). The two games become one. The idea of unity finds a structure that is quite magical.

The ways the words are placed show us that the luddi dancers are flying a single kite. And they are themselves flying. When we return to the first part of ;this line we encounter the ‘nine fibered string’ with which the kite is being flown. All the symbolism and mystery of the number nine comes to mind (see Glossary). In each one of the nine-related matters, the nine are also one. Here the nine (the several dancers) are intertwined into a single string for flying the kite. Each fiber contributes to the sting. Each fiber becomes the string. Similarly, the kite and string also become one. And both the kite and string dance. This example presents a variation of the drop becoming the ocean. Or the (many) dancers dancing together, joining up to make the single string which flies the kite. And they all fly, like the kite, giving strength to human brotherhood as the nine fibers go to the make the string strong. The kite, string and dancers, become one action, one process. One.

The nine fibers are wound together, twisted together to make the string. That too is a dance movement. The string has internal dance in it. Another layer of dance is brought to us by the poet.

There are dances within the dance. The dance is multi-layered. And we are celebrating, in joy. We are flying with the kite. The kite is in the air. It is our link with the cosmos. The link, via the string, is physical. We and the cosmos are physically linked. The dance of the nine planets becomes our dance. We and the cosmos become one through the magic of metaphor.

There are other internal ‘dances’ in the whole act of celebration. The dancers are fully free to do their own movements like the nine planets, the nine rass (emotive elements), the nine rattans (jewels), all have their own movements. Yet all belong to one movement around one object.

Then there are the small pricks and throbs (tunka) used in flying kites. These too are like dance movements. There is also the dhil (the loosening and release of the string) in the act of flying a kite. The dance of the tunka and the release, all join the experience. With this dance in consciousness the nau duaar (nine doors open for us. This makes consciousness more acute, more integrated, more in unity with All. Via the number nine, the nine saayak (nine ‘inferior castes’) become casteless (and make everyone casteless) as they come into the dance. Thus unity is metaphorically realized.

Rahaao/refrain (line 3):

Ni asin aao kbidaabaay luddi

Come girls play a dance

The refrain returns. Kite flying and dance reinforce each other. The matter is of great delicacy. The natural desire to dance when in joy, and the desire to fly and soar go together.

Line 4:

Saajan dae hath dor asaadi, maen saajan di guddi

In my beloved’s hand my string; I’m the kite of my Romance

The kaafi gets more intricate. The (nine-fibered) string used in kite flying is in the hands of the beloved. And we are the kite. The beloved and the kite become one entity. When the string is in the hands of the beloved, we fly! The clear and physical attachment of ;the beloved and us is via the (nine-fibered) string. A relationship, with innumerable relationships melded into it, is being established with the sky. The possibility of flying and taking into hand that which flies are unified. This is no longer a vicarious flight. We are flying. And as the refrain returns, we are dancing too. The feeling is the unburdened, incredible lightness of being. Life becomes a celebration.

Is the dance being performed to get the beloved to return?. Or to appease him? There is humility and entereaty in the line. We are tethered to the Beloved. Our string is in his hand. And we are His plaything (doll – another meaning of guddi). But this is not the plaything which Sophocles described, (later borrowed by Thomas Hardy): ‘Like files to wanton boys are we to the gods. They kill us for their sport’. This is a wholly different experience of unity with the Beloved which only comes when the self is completely handed to Him. The ‘I’ (asaadi: mine) which is in the hands of the Beloved is not the egotistical self which seeks separation, but the submitting self which experiences the unity. Yet it retains the flying kite’s independence. And it is in joy.

We can also see playful physical loovers here, with the woman relishing being the ‘doll’ of her lover. Is the special flavour of illicit love present here? It has broken the rules of licit relationships. Is it only ‘here’ that such a relationship can be experienced? These readings usually run in parallel in Shaah Husayn’s verse.

Rahaao/refrain (Line 5):

Ni asin aao khidaahaan luddi

Come girls lets play a dance

The saajan and the lover are linked as the string and the kite. Both are in play.

Line 6:

Iss vaelae nun pachotaasaen, jaa’ae posaen vihc khuddi

You’ll rue these times, when the ditch will be your circumstance

The poet now changes the tone of the kaafi. Themes of death and that ‘which is being lost’ make their appearance. The poet warns us that we will rue these time when we are dead if we do not utilize them to celebrate life, to find union with the Beloved1.

This line has other juxtapositions with the previous lines. The kite is flying. People are dancing and celebrating. Celebrating and dancing. Those who do do not participate and thereby do not find unity (or a reason to be joyous, celebrate, dance, fly) they die while living. Then again, the people in the refrain and in the first two antras (verses, or lines after eachrefrain) are in regetherness. The one in the grave is alone. The khuddi (ditch, grave) is certainly the breaking of a relationship with life. The lonely grave also becomes a metaphor for an alienated life. There is also another feeling in the lines: that man goes to the grave (this private alienation) many times in his a life. Now remorse is always with us for what we anticipate – a lonely grave, a lonely time. The alternative is that we celebrate life.

Thus the refrain tells us in the next line, luddi (dance) is in this life. It is not there in the grave. Indeed man is alone in a grave. And a view of beaven is to be in a feeling of unity with ‘others’ while alive. Relationships, deep and intimate, intricate and loving, form the joy of life. And the experience of mystical union with God gives us ecstasy.

Rahaao/refrain (Line 7):

Ni asin aao khidaahaan luddi

Come girls lets play a dance

The rahaao (refrain) reminds us that in a luddi there is a given movement, a structure. But there is, as in all folk dances, plenty of opportunity for individual movement. This indeed is the situation here. Here all the girls are celebrating. They are dancing. They are living. They are in joy, individually and collectively.

Line 8:

Kahae Husayn faqeer Saain da, dunya jaandi buddi

Says Husayn, the Lord’s devotee, drowing is the world’s heritance

Now the poet speaks in the first person. The whole world is drawing. The whole world is not in a dance or in an experience of soaring. It is in a ditch. It comprises isolated, alienated individuals.

As in most kaafis of Shaah Husayn, the first part of the last antra says that Husayn is a faqeer. A faqeer is like an inverted triangle, emptying out what is in him. This is like saying the first kalmia (karygma is closest in meaning), which first empties you – la ilaaha (there is no deity), and then fills you with Allah. ‘There is no deity but God’, is the way of the faqeer. He first ‘empties’ himself – negates what he carried within himself, that which alienates – egotism, greed, pride, lust, self-delusion, anger, etc. – and then he fills himself with the Name of God, with relationships, with love, with Unity.

The women or faqeers (mankind in this kaafi) are in the process of emptying out and filling in simultaneously. This is happening because the saain is there. He is the saain (Lord, Master, Guide, etc.) of the faqeer. The faqeer has become a faqeer because she has emptied herself out. Now the saain is filling her. And often the saain does this by listening to go the faqeer (not by talking to her). Indeed a saain is the glue of intricate bonding which keeps the nine fibers in the string together and helps in keeping the integrity (read unity) of the string.

The juxtaposition of the metaphors continues. The kite is flying above (in the heavens). Luddi is being danced on earth. The ditch is below. When we are alienated, we are down in a ditch. Mankind is going further below, into the nether regions.

The structure of the poem is such that the words and the rhymes do not lead to the same thing. But they can jointly extract us from our predicaments. A game is underpinning everthing – luddi (both togetherness and dance), and guddi (both the kite and a doll). All games which involve physical movement require and achieve a unity of mind and body. The whole man plays. The game is for finding joy and fulfillment together. The poet is showing us two possibilities in life – the luddi and guddi (dance and metaphoric flying), or the ditch where there is no movement, in a hamstrung, alienated ‘life’.

Rahaao/refrain (Line 9):

Ni asin aao khidaahaan luddi

Come girls lets play a dance

This kaafi has the special colour of Shaah Husayn stamped on it. There is a lament, certain hopelessness in the last antra. But this hopelessness is dissipated by the return of the rahaao. Now the refrain has a magical effect. It becomes defiant, with a persistent attitude (and action) of bucking the trend. The world may be losing its inheritance, says the poet, but let us dance in defiance. And in the joy of living. Let us dance. Let us dance!

Note:

One way to musically compose the rahaoo is as follows:

Aao khidaahaan luddi

ni

Asin aao khidaahaan luddi

 

The integration with the antras would be as follows:

Naun taar asin guddi di, lae karaahaan uddi

ni

Asin aao khidaahaan luddi

 

and then the next antra, and so on

____________________

1 An affirmation of the Hereafter is in this line. If we are to rue these times after death, there has to be a ‘Hereafter’ in which to rue.


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