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کافی 4: راگ ماجھ

مظفر اے غفار
March 18th, 2008

راگ ماجھ
  دل درداں کِیتی پوری نی' دل درداں کیِتی پوری
  لکھ کروڑ جینہاں دے جُڑیا' سو بھی جھُوری جھُوری
  دِل درداں کِیتی پوری نی' دِل درداں کیِتی پوری
  بھٹھ پئی تیری چِٹی چادر' چنگی فقِیراں دی بھُوری
  دِل درداں کِیتی پوری نی' دِل دردان کِیتی پوری
  سادھ سنگت دے اوہلے رہندے' بُدھ تیہناں دی سُوری
  دِل درداں کِیتی پوری نی' دِل درداں کیِتی پوری
کہے حسین فقیر سائیں دا، خلقت گئی ادھوری
  دِل درداں کِیتی پوری نی' دِل درداں کیِتی پوری

ਰਾਗ ਮਾਝ


1 ਦਿਲ ਦਰਦਾਂ ਕੀਤੀ ਪੁਰੀ ਨੀ, ਦਿਲ ਦਰਦਾਂ ਕੀਤੀ ਪੂਰੀ
2 ਲੱਖ ਕਰੋੜ ਜਿਹਨਾਂ ਦੇ ਜੁੜਿਆ, ਸੋ ਭੀ ਝੂਰੀ ਝੂਰੀ
3 ਦਿਲ ਦਰਦਾਂ ਕੀਤੀ ਪੂਰੀ ਨੀ, ਦਿਲ ਦਰਦਾਂ ਕੀਤੀ ਪੂਰੀ
4 ਭੱਠ ਪਈ ਤੇਰੀ ਚਿੱਟੀ ਚਾਦਰ, ਚੰਗੀ ਫ਼ਕੀਰਾਂ ਦੀ ਭੂਰੀ
5 ਦਿਲ ਦਰਦਾਂ ਕੀਤੀ ਪੂਰੀ ਨੀ, ਦਿਲ ਦਰਦਾਂ ਕੀਤੀ ਪੂਰੀ
6 ਸਾਧ ਸੰਗਤ ਦੇ ਓਹਲੇ ਰਹਿੰਦੇ, ਬੁਧ ਤਿਹਨਾ ਦੀ ਸੂਰੀ
7 ਦਿਲ ਦਰਦਾਂ ਕੀਤੀ ਪੂਰੀ ਨੀ' ਦਿਲ ਦਰਦਾਂ ਕੀਤੀ ਪੂਰੀ
8 ਕਹੇ ਹੁਸੈਨ ਫ਼ਕੀਰ ਸਾਈਂ ਦਾ, ਖ਼ਲਕਤ ਗਈ ਅਧੂਰੀ
9 ਦਿਲ ਦਰਦਾਂ ਕੀਤੀ ਪੂਰੀ ਨੀ' ਦਿਲ ਦਰਦਾਂ ਕੀਤੀ ਪੂਰੀ


Raag maajh

1 Dil dardaan keeti poori ni, dil dardaan keeti poori

2 lakh karor jaehaan dae jurya, so bhi jhoori jhoori

3 Dil dardaan keeti poori ni, dil dardaan keeti poori

4 Bhath paee taeri citti caadar, canggi faqeeraan di bhoori

5 Dil dardaan keeti poori ni, dil dardaan keeti poori

6 Saadh sangat dae ohlae rehndae, budh taehnaan di soori

7 Dil dardaan keeti poori no, dil dardaan keeti poori

8 kahae Husayn faqeer Saain da, khalqat gaee adhoori

9 Dil dardaan keeti poori ni, dil dardaan keeti poori

GLOSSARY:

Rahaao/refrain (Line 1, etc.):

Dardaan (plural of dard): s.m.f. Pain, ache, affliction; pity, compassion, sympathy, affection.

Line 2:

Jurya: v.t. Collected, amassed, accumulated; to get the least, to get all that which could be secured (meaning lesser than expectations).

Jhoori: Is grieved, faded, etc. from jhoorna/jhooran: v.n. To grieve, to regret, to pine away in grief, to have a sense of loss; to be patient, to repent; to wither, to fade, to decay; to be withered, faded, dried. (Since bones and skin ‘separate’ when limbs ‘shrink’ the sense of separation is present in the word).

Jhoori jhoori: The sense of going to piece is present is present in the words – grieving and having a sense of loss, and withering (repeatedly, having a continuous sense of loss, and withering away).

Line 4:

Bhath: s.m. A place with a lot of fire; fire-place, grate or stone oven; forge; furnace, kiln; alembic, still ; washer man’s boiler or copper; distillery.

Bhoori: s.f. Grey, coarse woolen blanket or shawl (usually worn by the poor and faqeers). [Probably initially woven from wool in its natural color and without much scouring. Later probably dyed in browns or even blackish colors as this made dust and dirt less visible (the cost of soap has been a real issue with the poor].

Line 6:

Saadh: s.f. (one step above saadhu): Perfect, excellent, good, eminent; virtuous, honorable, righteous, pious, holy, pure, benevolent, ingenious, honest, guileless, simple, innocent.

Sangat: s.m. An assembly (where people come together and where there is a sense of fellowship; concord; a group of fellow travelers, a group of like – minded people ; - comradeship.

Ohlae: Behind a screen, etc; from ohla: s.m. A veil, a screen (for concealment); protection, support.

Budh: v.t. Perception, observation, intelligence, understanding, sense, intelligence, mind, wisdom, judgment, discernment; comprehension, knowledge; thought, opinion, notion, reflection, - s.m. Any wise or learned man, a sage.

Soori: s.m. heroic, brave, valiant, courageous, bold; powerful, fortified; complete, perfect.

Line 8:

Khalqat: s.m. Creation; constitution; natural constitution; Creation, the world, people, populace, mankind; (met). Common people; congress.

1 The heart was completed by pain, heart pain let nothing remain

2 Those who’ve got millions, they too go to pieces, sorrows sustain

3 The heart was completed by pain, heart pain let nothing remain

4 Into the fires your white shawl! Shawl! Good the faqeer’s blanket plain

5 The heart was completed by pain, heart pain let nothing remain

6 The truthful stay in veils of congress, sage their dauntless domain

7 The heart was completed by pain, heart pain let nothing remain

8 Says |Husayn the lord’s devotee, incomplete goes the world’s campaign

9 The heart was completed by pain, heart pain let nothing remain

NOTES:

Rahaao/refrain (Line 1):

Dil dardaan keeti poori ni, dil dardaan keeti poori

The heart was completed by pain, heart pain let nothing remain

The rahaao (refrain) is very rich with many possible. The first part of the line and its repetition in the second part offer many different interpretations.

It must be mentioned here that the word dil (heart) carried a feminine gender in Shah Husayn’s time. (It still does in western and southern Punjaab). Inexplicably Urdu gave a masculine gender to dil.

The first reading is that the heart was completed by the pain of the heart. This reading puts an emphasis on ‘becoming’. The meaning appears to be what Simone de Beauvoir said four centuries later, ‘One is not born, but rather becomes a woman’1. Shah Husayn’s line too is as existential as we may like to make it. The word used here is not ‘becoming’ but ‘completion’. Becoming is endemic in the word. And what completes the heart? Why, dard. Dard is a large word. Its presentation in the translation – pain – only covers part of its meaning. Dard has a much wider range. Each one of its meaning fit in nicely into the line. First we can take the word pain. It is pain for others, for unrealized aspirations, etc are spurs to ‘becoming’. The second sympathy and affection. This pain covers a vast canvas a vast canvas of ‘becoming’.

Let us move to the second part of the line (only to return to the first part for another reading). Poori keeti is a phrase which means to really do a job on someone, to do someone in, to let nothing remain. This is another kind of completion. We thus come to our first reading of the line (the one presented in the translation): “The heart was completed by pain; heart-pain let nothing remain’.

Let’s move to another reading hinted at earlier. The line could be about women. ‘Heart pain completes a woman’ is the reading if we read a comma after dil dardaan. The whole story of woman comes before us, particularly two events: One is the pain of leaving the parent’s home and all the friends who live around her, when married. The second is the pain of childbirth. Both are pains of ‘becoming’, of ‘completion’ of a woman.

The other meanings of the word dard also fully apply to make further reading. We can take the reading given earlier as the reading of the second part of the line – a woman is completed by heart pain (compassion, affection).

A third reading is secure by reversing the readings in the first and second parts of the line, viz. ‘heart pain let nothing remain; the heart was completed by pain. This takes us to the process adopted by faqeers – first empty out all the bewildering baggage one carries (egotism, arrogance, greed, lust, self-affection, mystical union).

A fourth reading is that man is not completed until he first experiences the pain of separation from God (when God ordered Creation), and then yet again faces pain in ridding himself of egotism to return to the ambit of Completion.

Line 2:

Lakh karor jaehnaan dae jurya, so bhi jhoori jhoori

Those who’ve got millions, they too go to pieces, sorrows sustain

Like the refrain, each of the single line verses also has two parts. The first part of this line has two readings: it talks about those who have accumulated millions. The second reading is that millions of people only get the least possible.

The second part of the line is then applied to both categories. The word jhoori includes a sense of separation (of the skin and bones via shrinkage due to age). And jboori is also going to pieces. Thus both categories, the have and the have-nots (or the ‘doers’ and the ‘done in’) experience separation from others. Both are in continuous sorrow. For the former accumulation of wealth seems to be their whole life.(The words lakhand karor tell us that this amassing is a continuing process in their lives.)In the end analysis this isolates them. They go to pieces when they miss a deal, or poetically, they are alienated ‘pieces’ of mankind, not ready to leave behind all they have garnered. Those who have not got what was their aspiration or perhaps what was due to them, are also in ;the same situation.We hear loud and clear: greed is always an unfinished business.There is no ‘completion’ in greed. And then, after some thought, its only product is sorrow.

Rahaao/refrain (Line 3):

Dil dardaan keeti poori ni, dil dardaan keeti poori

The heart was completed by pain, heart pain let nothing remain

The refrain comes to remind us that these are matters of heart-pain. And heart pain lets nothing remain. We realize that the poet is saying that heart-pain may not be only for noble causes but also for deeply-felt greed. The second part of; the refrain then says that all this wealth is to no purpose.This unending exploitation and accumulation is to no end. All humanity is lost in this process – nothing remains.

Line 4:

Bhath paee taeri citti caadar, canggi faqeeraan di bhoori

Into the fires your white shawl! Good the faqeer’s blanket plain

This line has verbal violence in its more obvious reading. ‘Into the fires (with) your white shawl!’, says the poet.There is anger here. Shaah Husayn is speaking of the wealthy, who wore white clothes not only because they could afford the cost of washing but to distinguish (read, separate) themselves from the masses who wore grey or natural fabrics in which dirt did not show.The poet says, stop this differentiation.To hell with your white shawl!Shaah Husayn gives his approval to the faqeer’s grey blanket. The poet is not supporting dirtiness.He is making us focus on what we may have to do the wear expensive apparel, and what we may become by doing all that we need to do to dress ‘differently’.Here again the issue is ‘becoming’.Only this kind of differentiated ‘becoming’ is decried by the poet.

Another reading of this line is that the white sheet is in the washer man’s boiler to be cleaned and to be made spotless. The implication is that the protagonist is claiming loudly; ‘I am spotless and ‘clean’ in every way’. (Or someone else gets rid of my dirt).A second loaded message seems to be: ‘I am rich and have no weaknesses’. ‘Look ma! no spots!’

The poet may also be taking a jibe at those who are complacent in having a coarse blanket and garnering strength just by saying to hell with your white shaw1.the poet is telling us that both clothes are uniforms.Both are there to distinguish one from the other.Both attributes (and their sartorial manifestations) are not acceptable. However the poet seems to tilt towards the poor man as this perhaps was also his own uniform, and also because he is speaking out loud against exploiters.

This line gives a feeling of war of the classes. That feeling is also given to the kaafi by this line

It may be noted that desert folk prefer thicker clothes.They know that man’s perspiration is nature’s way to keep him cool.They save scarce moisture by wearing thicker garments. Sweat on their bodies keeps them cooler for longer.This may be implied here as the faqeer’s blanket is ‘good’ in comparison with fine, white clothes which are more for show than for function.All this could also be posturing to poetically negate the fruits of exploitation.

Rahaao/refrain (Line 5):

Dil dardaan keeti poori ni, dil dardaan keeti poori

The heart was completed by pain, heart pain let nothing remain

The refrain returns to tell us that even if we are not exploiters, we still need completion.That will come with heart pain and not by wearing garments of a particular color.

Line 6:

Saadh sangat dae oblae rehndae, budh taehnaan di soori

The truthful stay in veils of congress, sage their dauntless domain

This is a very rich, complex and obtuse line.The first part of the line has at least two readings.One, those who see the screen of a saadh-sangat (pious concord, etc.) – the words are taken as composite noun – their perception, etc., is powerful.Here individuation is screened.The mind is opened to other thoughts.The second reading is that the sangat (assembly) is itself a screen nurturing a nursery for developing consciousness.

The second part of the line introduces a word that is usually not used on its own – budh. (It is usually used presented as sudh budh).These people have wisdom, says the poet. But a sensation of war comes in with the use of the word soori (with its meanings of valor and heroism – reminding us that Sher Shaah Soori had ruled a few years earlier than when this kaafi was written). Of course soori also means wisdom.So both meanings ride a single horse, giving a complex richness to the line. ‘Wisdom is their wisdom’ is one reading.

Rahaao/refrain (Line 7):

Dil dardaan keeti poori ni, dil dardaan keeti poori

The heart was completed by pain, heart pain let nothing remain

The lament returns. There is no completion. Nothing remains.And yet, we are reminded that completion is via heart-pain.We have to pay our dues to life to get the sense of completion.And perhaps ‘completion’ is a sense, or better still, an experience of unity.

Line 8:

Kahae Husayn faqeer Saain da, khalqat gaee adhoori

Says Husayn the Lord’s devotee, incomplete goes the world’s campaign

Shaah Husayn calls himself a Faqeer of the Lord.We move to the second part of the line and read the lament that the populace is ‘going half-done.But is the faqeer half-done?He has emptied himself out but has he also filled himself (with love of humanity and love of God)?

A more obvious reading is there too, a lament that mankind is ‘going’ half-done, unfinished, incomplete.Here the ‘going’ can pertain to the process of life.We are ‘going’ after living half lives. The line presents a lament for the time when we depart from this life.

In a way the khalqat that which has been created; the populace) is the opposite of, or at least not the same as, budh (wisdom) and saadh (the good), because khalqat (people) are a part of ‘being’, while budh and saadh are a part of ‘becoming’.

There appear to be three broad types of people mentioned in this kaafi. There are the accumulators of wealth, also typed as exploiters.Then there are the saadh who have ‘set themselves right’.Finally there is the khalqat, who go as they come. When we link these categories to the beginning of the last antra (verse), we are left with two categories.The kaafi opens with completion and its sources, and ends with the half-done. The completed seem to be the saadh, or at least they are on a path to completion.The avaricious and those who do not use their consciousness to ‘fix’ themselves are the half-done.

In the matter of ‘completion’ heart-pain is presented as the recipe. Compassion and affection for others form the only methodology for completion of the Self, when the ‘I’’ and the ‘we’ are brought together.There is certainly no ‘completion’ via collecting ‘millions’. However, accumulation of another kind holds the key: this is the accumulation of feeling, of compassion, of affection which can act as a transforming force. This is the (slow) way to completion.

Because the heart also ‘lets nothing remain’,this helps create (spiritual psychological and emotional) space as it does the emptying job of what the avaricious consider the route to fulfillment. Heart-pain both clears the cobwebs, and it brings completion.A second aspect of completion is also presented. This is staying in the veils of people – living with them (with compassion and affection, without exploitation, as usurers do).

The word poori takes the mind to a sister word – poorna (to make complete).The insistent beating of a metal vessel (to give it shape or design) is also called poorna. The experience and action of the saadh (saadbna – making right) is the same. It is a slow process which makes the human vessel ‘right’. We can see the kaafi as also suggesting the opposite methodology to bhat paee (into the fires!), which is the blacksmith’s way of hard strikes. But it does not appear to be the case as this action., quick fixes or hard hammerings, are not the ways of transformation, of becoming saadh (a stage above saadhu).

Since so much depends on dard in this kaafi, we must ask the question what is dard? Dard is perhaps the pain of compassion and affection which link ‘I’ with ‘we’.And thus connects thus connects the ‘I’ and ‘we’ to make the Self complete.The obverse is when dard the pain of the separation of ‘I’ and ‘we’.This latter reading can take us to the concept fo Waahdat al- Vujood (Unity of Being).The pain of separation from Unity is a legacy of man.And his effort to reclaim unity is the process of compassion and affection, which his effort to reclaim Unity is the process of compassion and affection, which itself also leads to completion. Because man does not have enough heart-done.Here the word gaee carries more than one shade.One is ‘gone’.A second shade is that its going but not gone.A third meaning is that some is gone, some remains.All readings can be validated by the history of man. But with the latter two readings, hope remains for change.This kaafi can guide and even propel people towards a way of life which can lead to completion.

However, this is ‘what could be’. The refrain insists on this completion, again and again. But we know, and the poet tells us, what the populace has always been half-done. This is how it is likely to remain. We are led to that complex sixth line. Why are we hiding in the sangat (congress)? Perhaps because we feel pain that the khalqat cannot be completed. If individuals can achieve this experience, the pain that everyone cannot or will not get the experience of Unity, is itself dard. Indeed does the presence of this dard allow even some individuals to be ‘completed’?

There is another question that faces us. It we gain our goal and heart-pain ‘completes’ us, what then? Perhaps the answer is that both heart-pain and completion’ are not destinations but dynamic processes. The rahaao (refrain) affirms this reading. After completion nothing remains. Then there is completion again. And nothing remains. And so on. Perhaps heart-pain changes its level to an extent that it’s very nature changes. Completion keeps gaining a different level.

To bring this very esoteric matter closer to our experience, the sixth line tells us that sangat is mingling with others and making our edges crumble to allow a feeling of unity to become a part of us. Sangat is not a separate committee. Collective thought becomes jount thought. And joint thought impels joint action. Although this joint thought manifests itself separately in each person. That is the ohla (veil) of the sangat. There is separate understanding of things. Yet it is the same. The sangat veils the separate understanding precisely because the lead to the same.

Rahaao/refrain (Line 9):

Dil dardaan keeti poori ni, dil dardaan keeti poori

The heart was completed by pain, heart pain let nothing remain

The refrain ends the kaafi. It reminds us that one dukh is the inability to share our joys. It tells us that ‘the heart was completed by pain, heart-pain let nothing remain’. But this Catch 22 situation allows our journey to begin anew. All the time.

Note:

The refrain may be musically composed as follows:

Dardaan keeti poori

ni

Dil dardaan keeti poori

Then:

Lakh karor jaehnaan dae jurya, so bhi jhoori jhoori

ni

Dil dardaan keeti poori

 

And then the refrain as above, followed by the next antra (verse).


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