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Lajwanti Rama Karishna
May 18th, 2008
3.5 / 5 (10 Votes)



(A.D. 1631-91)

 In sultan Bahu we have a poet who is universally admitted to have been among the greatest mystics of India. All accounts are silent with regard to the date of his birth, but they agree about the time of his death. He died on Friday night at dawn in the first jumadi alsani month in the year A.H. 1102 1 (A.D. 1691). He was sixty-three lunar years of age at the time of his death.2 From this we conclude that his birth took place in the year A.D. 1630 at Avan, Shorkot in Jhang district. Being born at Avan he is also known as Avan.3

According to Manaqab-i-Sultani, his ancestors migrated to India from Arabia after the death of Hasan and Husain.4 Having fought and defeated the Hindus of Pind Dadan Khan, Ahmadabad, and the districts around them, they forced them and their chiefs to embrace Islam.5 Whatever his ancestors may have been, the father of Bahu was a resident of Jhang district. He is said to have been a person of quiet disposition and so was his wife, the mother of Bahu. 6 Legends relating to his childhood are numerous and of a varied nat. One of them is so interesting that we cannot help relating it here. It runs thus: When Bahu was a boy, he was such a devout Mussulman that a sort of radiance spread round his face, and whenever a Hindu witnessed it, he was so impressed by it, that forgetting all, he renounced his own religion and became a Mussulman. This miracle wrought exclusively by his radiance frightened the Hindus, who sent a delegation to wait upon his father and request him to keep his son Bahu indoors, except certain hours. This request was complied with, and the young boy thereafter had to remain indoors.7

His family was held in great regard by the Emperor Shah Jahan who conferred on his father, Sultan Bazid  Kahar Janan in jagir.8

Bahu received his education at home, and his mother was mostly responsible for it. It is said that after he had married and had begotten children he wanted his mother to become his murshid or pir. But she declined, stating that women in Islam were not permitted to be spiritual teachers and that he had better go and find a male teacher.9 Thereupon he left his wives and family and went to Hazrat Habib-ullah Qadiri 10 at Baghdad 11 on the banks of the river Ravi.

After a short period of discipleship Sultan Bahu defeated his master in his power of karamat or miracles.12 Thereupon Habib-ullah frankly informed him of his inability to teach any further and directed him to go to his master Hazrat Pir Saiyid Abdul Rahman of Delhi. This Abdul Rahman, as Habib-ullah describes him, ‘was apparently a mansabdar of the Emperor but possessed great spiritual knowledge.’13 Sultan Bahu then went to Delhi and learnt from Abdul Rahman 14 what he desired.

Bahu, Says Sultan Bakhsh Qadiri, was held in great esteem by Emperor Aurangzeb, who paid him all possible attention, but for some unknown reason the saint never seems to have cared for the Emperor.15 Bahu had four married wives and seventeen mistresses. Of the former, there were Muslim and fourth Hindu. He had eight sons from his wives.16 This sort of life, though sanctioned by the Muslim law, did not befit a saint and a teacher. But it is not for us to judge his private life, and so we proceed.

On his death, Sultan Bahu was buried at Kahar Janan. In A.H. 1180 (A.D. 1767) Jhanda Singh and Ganda Singh17 raided the district. The relatives and murids, though they were very anxious to protect the tomb, ran away in fear. One murid of the saint nevertheless refused to prove faithless to his ashes. The Sikh chiefs, however, did not despoil the tomb and left the faithful disciple unmolested.18 What the Bhangi chiefs spared, nature, however, did not.19 Some time after, the Chenab having changed its course, its waters covered the graveyard, and many tombs were swept away. The murids and khalifas thereupon began to weep and wail, but a voice comforted them by telling them that next morning an unknown person would come and bring from under the water the coffin containing the dead body of Sultan Bahu. As stated by the voice, a strange Person brought the coffin out of the river 20 and having ordered its burial under a pipal tree, in a deserted building, disappeared.21 The coffin accordingly was taken to the said building, put under the tree, and a brick platform raised on it. The grave was not dug, as was the usual custom.22 This event occurred ten years after the Sikh raid district, i.e. in A.H. 1190 (AD. 1775).23

His Works

Bahu, says the author of Tawarikh Sultan Bahu, wrote in all a hundred and forty books in Persian and Arabic.24 Nothing is recorded about his works in Panjabi except that he wrote poetry in Panjabi also.25 What happened to this latter poetry is not known. Most probably, as Panjabi was considered vulgar and unscholarly his works in this language were ignored and ultimately lost.26 In spite of all this indifference, some of Bahu Panjabi verse was preserved by the gaddi-nishins, though not because they loved it. The followers and admirers of Sultan Bahu are mostly villagers and uneducated people ‘who know no language except their own mother-tongue, Panjabi. So the descendants, to maintain their own prestige and influence over these credulous people, have preserved some of Bahu’s verse.27 It is sung by the kavvalis on the ‘urs days.

Bahu, relates the author of Manaqab-i-Sultani, wrote in his ‘Ain-ul-Fuqar that he thanked his mother for having given him the name Bahu, which by the alteration of one nukta or point becomes yahu.28

The only published siharfi of Bahu is very lengthy. Each letter of the alphabet has one, two, or four short poems, each consisting of eight tukks. But some letters have more than twenty such poems. The most striking thing about Bahu’s poetry is that every second tukk ends in hu. Hu is regarded as a name of Allah, and it is considered highly meritorious to repeat it as often as possible. Lines ending in hu are an innovation in Panjabi poetry. They are also a great help in establishing the authenticity of Bahu’s Panjabi verse.

Bahu, as judged from his poetry, belonged to the philosophic school of the Sufis but for some reason or other he hid his philosophy under the veil of orthodoxy. It may be that to ensure his safety 29 he disguised his philosophic thought. Then there was another reason, namely his sainthood, which did not permit him that liberty and happiness which Bullhe would enjoy. He had become a pir, not in the sense of a preceptor but as a religious head and object of respect and worship. This demanded a certain amount of reserve and prudence on his part. So he had to present his philosophic ideas slightly tinged with orthodox thought, In spite of his personal convictions. Yet it is worth stating here that Bahu’s ideas, though philosophic, were different from those of Bullhe Shah, his younger contemporary. He does not seem to have believed in karma and reincarnation, and if he did, they had not become convictions with him. There was a great lack of balance and equilibrium in his pantheistic philosophy, and it is this lack which accounts for his indulgence in sexual pleasure and princely living. His private life was a natural consequence of his philosophic unsteadiness.

Bahu’s verse is composed in simple and unpretentious style. It has a well-marked character of its own and rests entirely on the resources of the poet’s thought knowledge of the language. There is an absolute lack of artificiality. Another thing which is creditable about him is that his verse is pious and bereft of all human love and its ideals.

Bahu’s language is Panjabi, as it is spoken in Jhang and the districts around it. It has sweetness and simplicity but is not rustic or vulgar.
The poetry of Bahu is not much known, and if it has attained popularity anywhere it is in the circle of his adherents, though it deservedly demands a better consideration from the general public of the Panjab.

The following poems are extracted from Bahu’s siharfi. This is Bahu’s ideal of a faqir:

Jim jiudia mar rahna hove, ta ves fakira kariye hu
je koi suttee guddar kura vang arurhi sahiye hu
je koi kadde gala mehna us nu ji ji kahiye hu
gila-ulahmbha bhandi khavari yar de paro sahiye hu.30


Jim: if dead while living we want to remain, then the robe of faqirs we should wear, O  He; if any one throws at us worn-out rags and rubbish,31 Like a dunghill we should bear them, O  He; he who abuses and taunts, to him, we should say sir, air, O  He; complaint and taunts, scandal and troubles we should bear for the Beloved’s sake, O  He.

In the following he relates the condition of him who has attained Union:

Jim jinha shau alif thi paya, oh fer kur’an na parh de hu
 oh maran dam muhabbat vala, dur hoyo ne  parde hu
Dozakh bihisht Gulam tinhade, ca kitto ne barde hu
Mai kurban tinha to bahu, jehre vahdat de vice varde hu.32

Jim: those who have found the Lord alif, 33 they again do not read the Qur’an , O He; they respire the breath of love and their veils 34 have gone afar, O  He; hell and heaven their slaves become, their faults they have forsaken, O He;  I am a sacrifice for those, Bahu, who in the unity enter, O He.

Bahu speaks of his beloved:

Ce carh canna tu kar roshanai te jikkar karede tare hu
Tere jahe cann kai sai carhde, sanu sajjana bajh hanera hu
Jitthe cann hai sada carhda kadar nahi kujh teri hu
Jis de karan asa janam gavaya bahu yar milsi ikk veri hu.35

Ce: rise moon spread your light and the stars will talk of it.36 O He; many hundred moons like you might rise, without the Friend for me is dark, O He; where that moon of mine rises, there no regard for you is felt, O He; for whom, Bahu, I have lost my life, once that Friend will meet me, O He.

Here is Bahu’s definition of real lovers (seekers):

Nun na oh hindu na oh moman na sijda den masiti hu
dam dam de vicc vekhan maula, jinha jan kaza na kitti hu
ae dane te bane divane jinha zat sahi vanjh kitti hu
mai kurban tinha to bahu jinha ishk bazi cun litti hu.37

Num: neither Hindus are they, nor are they Muslims nor in the mosques they in obeisance bow, O He; In each and every breath38 they behold God, who have not distorted their live, O He; they came wise, and became mad, who traded in the real substance, O He; I am a sacrifice for them, Bahu, who have selected their profession, love, O He.

The following expresses the philosophic concept of Sufi thought. Here he forgets his orthodoxy:

He hu da jama paih ghar aya, ism kamavan zati hu
na otthe kufar islam di manzil na otthe maut hayati hu
shah rag thi nazdik langhesi pa andure jhati hu
oh asa vicc asi uhua vicc dur hui kurbati hu.39

He: dressed in God I come home, to earn the Name is my profession, O He; neither are there stages of paganism and Islam, nor is there death and life, O He, He will pass nearer than the jugular vein; do throw a glance inside you, O He: He is in us and we in Him, falsity has gone away, 40 O He.


Nun nahi jogi nahi jattgam na mai cila kamaya hu
na mai bhajj masiti variya na tasba kharkaya hu
jo dam gafil so dam kafir sanu murshid eh pharmaya hu
murshid sanu sohni kitti bahu ikko pal vicc ca bakhshaya hu. 41

Nun: neither a yogi nor a jattgam,42 nor have I observed forty days’ fast, O  He; neither have I rushed into a mosque nor with rosary43 noise have I made, O He; ‘That breath when one is forgetful, that breath is false’ to me (this) the teacher has ordained, O He; teacher has treated me hand. somely,44 Bahu, in one moment he procured me grace, O He.

Mim mazhaba vale darvaze ucce, rah rabbani mori hu
pandta te mulvania kolo chap chap lange de cori hu
addia maran karn bakhere dardmanda dia ghori hu
Bahu cal utthai vasiai jitthe dava na kisse hori hu. 45

Mim: religion’s46 gates are high and the path of God is like a hole,47 O He;  from the pundits  and the maulvis, It passes hidden and concealed,48 O  He; they kick with their heels and create trouble (but this) for the sufferers is a ghori49 O He; Bahu, let us go there and live where no one else’s claims exist,50 O  He.

The following may account for Bahu’s indifference towards the Emperor. How could a man with such ideas appear in the king’s presence without running a great risk of being put to death?

Ain ashik hove te ishk kamave dil rakkhe vang pahara hu
lakh lakh badia hazar ulahme, kar jane bag bahara hu
mansur jahe cukk suli ditte vakif kul asrara hu
sijjdiya sar dil na cahe bahu tore kafir kahn hazara hu. 51

Ain: if one is a lover and professes love ho should keep his heart like a mountain, O He; many millions of bad turns and thousands of taunts he should feel as pleasures of garden, O He; one like Mansur was hanged on the cross, who was acquainted with all the secrets, O Ho; to bow head in obeisance52 heart wants not, Bahu, though thousands might proclaim me heathen, O He.

Bahu expresses his sentiments for his murshid in the fol1owing:

Mim murshid makka talib haji kaba ishk banaya hu
vicc hazur sada har vele kariai hajj savaya hu
hikk dam maitho juda jo hove dil milane te aya hu
murshid ain hayati bahu mere lu lu vicc samaya hu. 53

Mim: the murshid is Makka, seeker the pilgrim, and love is the Ka’aba, O He; in his presence ever and at all times54 let us do that better hajj, O He; if for one moment he parts from me, the heart craves to meet, O He; Bahu, the murshid is the life, he is present in my every pore, O He.

Bahu, like the orthodox Qadiris, compose a few poems in praise of Abdul-Qadir Jilani, the founder of the Qadiriya sect. Here is one of this kind.

Sin sun faryad pira diya pira, mai akkh sunava kehnu hu
tere jeha mainu hor na koij, mai jehe lakh tainu hu
phol na kagaz badia vale dar to dhak na mainu hu
mai vicc aid gunah na honed bahu tu bakhshido kahnu hu. 55

Sin: listen to (my) complaint O pir of the pirs,56 to whom else should I tell it? O He; like you there is no one else for me, but like me you have millions, O He; do not open the papers of bad deeds,57  do not push me away from the door, O He; if  I were not filled with such great sins then, says Bahu, why would you have pardoned me?

This is the condition of a real lover:
Ain ishk di bhah hadda da balan ashak baih sakede hu
ghat ke jan jigar vicc ara, vekkh kabab talede hu
sar garden phiran har vele khun jigar da pide hu
hoge hazara ashak bahu par ishk nasib kide hu.58

Ain:  love is fire, bones59 the fuel and sitting in front the lovers warm themselves,60 O He; putting the saw in the heart behold like the kabab they are being fried, O He; the mad ones, (lovers) ever roam about drinking their (own) heart’s blood, O He; thousands have become lovers, Bahu, but in whose destiny is love?61 O He.

What the Beloved expects of the lover is a white (pure) heart and not a white (beautiful) face. This idea is very finely expressed in the lines given below:

Dal dil kale kolo muh kala canga je koi us nu jane hu
muh kala dil accha hove ta dil yar pachane hu
eh dil yar de picche hove, mata yar vi kade sanjhane hu
Bahu sai alam chor masita natthe, jab lage ne dil taikane hu.62

Dal: than a black heart a black face is better, each one is aware of that, O He; if face is black and heart is white then the Beloved recognizes that, O He; such heart should ever follow63 the beloved, might be that He recognizes64 him, O He; Bahu, hundreds of learned men have left the mosques and run (to their pirs) when their heart has attained its mark,65 O He.

The pure and the elect are described in this couplet:

Jim jo paki bin pak mahi de, so paki jan paliti hu
hikk butt-khanne ja vasal hoai ijk khali rahe masiti hu.66

Jim: those who are pure, without the purity of the Beloved,67 consider their purity to be impurity, O He; some in the idol-house have reached Union, others have failed in mosques, O He.68

Bahu disapproves of faqiri without knowledge. He says:

Ain ilam bajhe koi fukar kamave kafir mare divana hu
sai varia di kare ibadat rah allah kannu bagana hu
gafalat kannu na khulsan parde dil zahil butt khanna hu
mai kurban tinha de bahu jinha miliya yar yagana hu.69

Ain: he who without knowledge professes renunciation let that false one (kafir) die insane, O He; he might worship for a hundred years, yet to God’s path will he be a stranger, O He; because of carelessness his curtains of ignorance will not be removed and his foolish heart will be an idol-house, O He; I am a sacrifice, Bahu, for them who have met the Beloved Unique, O He.

Now we shall quote a few examples expressing Bahu’s orthodox ideas. The following is in praise of the love of Hasan, Husain, and their father, Ali:

Ain ashak soi hakiki jehra katal mashuk de manne hu
ishk na chore muh na more tore sai talvara khanne hu
jitt val dekkhe raz mahi da laga udahi vanjhe hu
sacca ishk hasnain70 Ali da bahu sar deve raz na bhanne hu.71

Ain: he is a real lover who considers himself a victim of the Beloved, O He; who does not renounce love and turns not away his faces, even if a hundred swords cut him, O He; in whatever direction he sees the rule of his Beloved, there he continues to walk, O He, Bahu, the true love is of Hasan, Husain and Ali who gave their heads but did not break the rule, O He.

The following describes the horrors of the grave suggests that they could be avoided if the corpse bowed the Divine Will:

Jim jiude ki janan sar moya di so jane jo marda hu
kabara de vicc ann na pani utthe khare tureda gharda hu
ikk vichora ma pyo bhaiya duja azab kabarda hu
iman salamat tis da bahu jehra rabb agge sir dharda hu. 72

Jim: what do the living know of the condition of the dead, he alone knows who dies, O He; in graves there is neither food nor water and spending is of one’s own house, O Ho73; first there is the separation of parents and brothers,74 second is the trouble of the grave, O He; Bahu, his faith alone there rests safe, who surrenders his head before God, O He.

This extract illustrates well his regard for the kalma:75

He  hor dava na dil di kari, kalma dil di kari hu
kalma dur jangal kareda kalme mail uttari hu
kalma hire lal jawahar, kalme hat pasari hu
itthe utthe dovi jahani bahu kalma daulat sari hu.76

He: other profession for heart is not efficient, the kalma of the heart is efficient, O He; the kalma takes the rust away and the kalma scrapes off the dirt, O He; the kalma is diamond, ruby and precious stones, the kalma has extended its shop,77 O He; Bahu, here and there in both the worlds the kalma is all the wealth,78 O He.

Islam is the only true path, says our poet:

eh dil hijar firako sarda eh dam mare na jive hu
Sacca rah Muhammad vala bahu jai vicc rabb labhive hu.79

This heart is burning with separation, it neither dies nor lives, O He; the true path is the path of Muhammad, along which God is found, O He.

Sources of Information

Manaqab-i-Sultani 80 (in Urdu). This is a translation of the Persian work of the same name. The author of this work was Sultan Hamid, a relative and descendant of the poet Sultan Bahu. The work, though it gives much real information, contains legends of a fabulous character.

Tarikh makhzan-i-Panjab 81 by Ghulam Sarvar, in Urdu, also contains some important information about the saint.

Tawarikh Sultan Bahu in Persian. This MS. pamphlet on the life of Sultan Bahu was written by Sultan Bakhsh Qadiri in 1920 and is the property of the Panjab Public Library, Oriental Section.

Many other biographies of saints contain brief de scri ptions of the life of Bahu, but they are mere extracts from the above-mentioned books.

Of the Panjabi works of Bahu only one book has been published. This is a collection of his verses, the authenticity of which has been well established. The title is Majmu’a Abyat Sultan Bahu Panjabi.82 It is in Urdu characters and contains a very lengthy siharfi.

Another source of information, both on the life-history and the poetry of Bahu, are the kavvalis. Though we have not depended on this source for the account of Bahu, yet we cannot help stating that if someone collected material from this source it would be of great value.




1. Manaqab-i-sultani, p. 125.
2. ibid.
3. ibid., p.4.
4. Sons of Ali and grandsons of the prophet.
5. Manaqab-i-Sultani, p.7.
6. She was known as Bibi Rasti Quds Sara, cf. ibid., p.8.
7. Manaqab-i-sultani, p. 40
8. ibid., p. 126
9. Manaqab-i-sultani, p. 34.
10. ibid., p. 35. Who this Habib-ullah was we do not know. There were so many of this name at the time. Beale in his Oriental Biographical Dictionary mentions two, one a celebrated poet of Agra and another ‘the author of an Arabic work called Bahr-ul-Mantiq or the Sea of Logic’.
11. This Baghdad is different from the famous city of Iraq. Most probably it was a village on the banks of the Ravi.
12. Manaqab-i-Sultani, pp. 36-7.
13. ibid., p. 37.
14. ibid., p. 37. This Abdul Rahman could not be any other than the son of Abdul Aziz Naqshbandi. Sulaiman Shikoh, son of Dara Shikoh, married his daughter in A.H. 1062 (A.D. 1651). See Beale, Oriental Biographical Dictionary, p. 13.
15. Tawarikh Sultan Bahu, pp. 8-9. We see no other reason for Bahu’s indifference towards Aurangzeb except that either he doubted his attentions or that he disapproved of his treatment of the Sufi saints and friends of the late prince Dara Shikoh whom the Sufi, and especially the Qadiris, loved and counted as one of themselves.
16. Manaqab-i-Sultani, pp. 41-2.
17. These Sikh chiefs made this raid in 1766, and it surely must have lasted for at least a year. See Griffith’s Panjab Chiefs, Vol. I, p. 478
18. Manaqab-i-Sultani, p. 130.
19. It must be stated to the credit of the Shikh Sardars that they never hurt the religious feelings of the Mussulmans by despoiling or by pulling down their sacred buildings and other places of worship.
20. Manaqab-i-Sultani, p. 130.
This unknown person, according to tradition, was Sultan Bahu himself.
22. With due respect to the sentiment of the faithful, we rather if the present tomb contains the ashes of the saint.
Manaqab-i-Sultani, p. 131.
ibid., p. 8.
25. ibid., p. 239.
26. This opinion is confirmed by the place allotted and the indifference shown to valuable Panjabi manu scri pt, in the private MS. Collections in the Panjab.

As mentioned below, some of it has been published by Mia Fazal Din of Lahore.
28. p. 8. Yahu, it is said in the Panjab, is an important efficacious a name of God as Om in Sanskrit.
29. As mentioned above, Aurangzeb, the emperor, watched his movements attentively. For this very reason, as we have said below, Inayat Shah, the great Qadiri saint, turned away his beloved disciple Bullhe Shah.
30. Majmu’a Sultan Bahu, p.9.
31. Guddar is worn-out cloth.
32. Majmua Sultan Bahu, p. 9.
33. Alif here means God.
34. Meaning, their ignorance has vanished and they have seen the truth.
35. Majmu’a Sultan Bahu, p. 10.
36. Will discuss of its light being so strong as compared to their own light.
37. Majmu’a Sultan Bahu, p. 22.
38. In each creature or in the breath of each creature that breathes.
39. Majmu’a Sultan Bahu, p. 24.
40. Has disappeared or has left the soul.
41. Majmu’a Sultan Bahu, p. 23.
42. Sadhus and dervishes with long, braided hair.
43. By fervently counting the beads.
44. Meaning, has done me a great favour by teaching me the secret, i.e. ‘the breath when one is forgetful of God, that breath is false.’
45. Majmu’a Sultan Bahu, p. 22.
46. Religion here stands for any established church.
47. Holo signifies humility.
48. It passes low and concealed, i.e. the mystic lover being afraid of the clergy keeps himself hidden from them and is humble.
49. They try to crush the mystics underfoot and create trouble for them, but to the lover these kicks and troubles appear like that auspicious song which is sung at marriage celebrations indicating the approaching union?
50. Where no one professes anything i.e. where there are seekers but no professors of paths.
51. Majmu’a Sultan Bahu, p. 16.
52. This obeisance is made during the five daily prayers of the Muhammadans.

53. Majmu’a Sultan Bahu, p.21.

54. Waiting upon him at each minute of the day and night is like Pilgrimage to the ka’aba.

55. Majmu’a Sultan Bahu, p. 14.

56. A name of Abdul Qadir Jilani.
57. The papers containing the account of my bad deeds.
58. Majmu’a Sultan Bahu, p. 16
59. The different parts of the lover’s body burn in the fire of love, hence they are fuel.
60. The warmth or suffering is experienced by the lovers, i.e. their souls.
61. Meaning, those who attain love (i.e. the Beloved’s love) are rare though thousands try to have it.
62. Majmu’a Sultan Bahu, p. 11.
63. Should constantly seek the Beloved.
64. So that he, recognizing the search, will accept the lover.
65. When the lovers hearts have become pure and follow the Beloved (i.e. when they see Him in all and love Him in all) then they have attained light. And so they leave the church.
66. Majmu’a Sultan Bahu, p. 8.
67. Purity
without God is uncleanliness is not by professing the so-called pure religions that one attains salvation, but by loving God.
68. ‘Some’, says Bahu, ‘attained Union remaining in the idol-house or in a religion that prescribes idolatry and is therefore considered to be impure by Islam, while many mosque-going people believed to be pure could no attain it’, because they were attached to the letter and not to the Spirit.
69. Majmu’a Sultan Bahu, p. 16.
70. Hassnain stands for both Hasan and Husain
71. Majmu’a Sultan Bahu, p. 16.

72. Majmu’a Sultan Bahu, p.9
73. That is, the time is spent according to one’s own actions, good or bad.
74. Brother here means relatives and friends.
75. The kalma is the profession of the Muhammadan faith.
76. Majmu’a Sultan Bahu, p. 24.
77. Extending its shop ‘means that the kalma is spreading or that Islam is progressing.
78. That is, the kalma is the greatest wealth as its repetition wins the pleasures of the world and heaven.
79. Majmu’a Sultan Bahu, p. 4.

80. Husain Steam Press, Lahore.
81. Naval Kishore Press, Lucknow, 1877.
82. Compiled by Mia Fazal Din of Lahore in 1915. Can be had from Allah vale ki kaumi Dukan, Kashmiri Bazar, Lahore, or Inkilab Press, Lahore.


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