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  • HINDI FILM SONGS IN VARIOUS RAGA

    Raga: Abhogi Kanada

    Jiya lage na kya karu sajna
    Na jaiyo re sautan ghar sainyai

    Raga: Adana

    Jhanak jhanak payal baje – JJPB
    Radhike toone bansari – Bhai Bhai
    Manmohan man mein ho tumhi – Kaise Kahoon

    Raga: Ahir Bhairav

    Puchho na kaise maine rain bitai – Meri Surat Teri Aankhen
    Ramka gun gaan kariye- Ram Shyam Gun Gaan (non-film)
    Meri bina tum bin roye – Dekh Kabira Roya
    Main to kabse teri sharan men – Ram Nagari
    Zindagi ko sanvarana hoga – alaap
    Sola barasaki bali umarko salam -ek dujhe ke liye
    Apne jeevan ki uljhan ko – Uljhan
    Man Anand Anand Chhayo – Vijeta
    Waqt karta jo wafa aap hamare – Dilne Pukara
    Ram teri ganga maili ho gayi – Ram Teri Ganga Maili
    Meri galiyonse logonki yari badh – Dharmatma
    Chalo man jayen ghar apne – Swami Vivekananda
    Albela sajan aayo re – Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam

    Raga: Alaiya Bilawal

    Jana gana mana – National Anthem
    Bhor ayi, gaya andhiyara – Bawarchi
    Sare ke sare ga ma ko lekar – Parichay

    Raga: Asavari

    Mujhe galese lagalo bahut udas – Aaj aur Kal
    Chale jana nahin naina milake – badi Behen
    Piya te kaha – Toofan aur Diya

    Raga: Bageshri

    Jag dard-e-ishq jaag – Anarkali
    Radha na bole na bole – Azad
    Bedardi dagabaz ja tu nahin – Bluff Master
    Chah barbad karegi – Shah Jahan
    Jao jao nand ke lala – Rangoli
    Aaja re, paradesi – Madhumati
    Ghadi Ghadi mera dil dhadke – Madhumati
    Hamse aya na gaya – Dekh Kabira Roya
    Poochhta jaa mere marghatse – A ghazal from Ghulam Ali
    Chaman men rang-e-bahar – Ghulam Ali album

    Raga: Bahar

    Chham chham nachat ayi bahar – Chaaya
    Mann ki bin matwari baje – Shabab

    Raga: Bairagi

    Kisi nazar ko tera intazar aja – Aitbaar
    Mein ek raja hun- Uphaar

    Raga: Barawa

    Khai hai re humne kasam – Talash

    Raga: Basant

    Ketaki, gulab, juhi champaka – Basant Bahar

    Raga: Bibhash

    Sanjh dhale gagan tale hum – Utsav
    Neelam ke nabh chhayi – Utsav

    Raga: Bhairav

    Sun ri pavan, pavan puravaiya – Anuraag
    Jaago mohan pyaare – Jaagte Raho

    Raga: Bhairavi

    Babul mora naihar chhooto – Street singer
    Insaf ka mandir hai – Naya Daur
    Kaise jaun jamunake tir – Devta
    Laaga chunari men daag – dil hi to hai
    Jyot se jyot jagate chalo -san gyaneshwar
    Jo bhaje hari ko sada – Bhajan
    Jab dil hi tut gaya – Baiju Bavra
    Ai diwali, ai diwali – Shah Jahan
    Do hansonka joda bichhad – Ratan
    Barasat men, hamse mile tum – Ganga Jamuna
    Dost dost na raha – barsaat
    Bol radha bol sangam hoga ke – Sangam
    Mera juta hai japani – Sangam
    Ramiya vasta vaiya – shree 420
    Suno chhotisi gudiya ki lambi – shree 420
    Khamosh hai – seema
    Mere ai dil bata – amar
    Sanvare sanvare – JJPB
    Ai mere dil kahin aur chal -anuradha
    Mile sur tera hamara – Doordarshan
    Kaise samjhaoon bade nasamajh-Sooraj
    Bhor bhaye panghatpe-satyam shivam sundaram
    Jare, jare ud ja re panchhi – maaya
    Jay bolo beiman ki- beimaan
    Mithe bol bole – kinaara
    Mitwa re mitwa purab na jaio -jawaab
    Hato kaheko juthi banao – manzil
    Jiya jale jaan jale nainon tale – Dil Se
    Phool gendava na maaro -Door ka Chand
    Dhanya bhag seva ka avsar – sur sangam
    Mile jo kadi kadi, ek zanjeer- kasme waade
    Hume tumse pyar kitana – kudrat
    Kar chale hum fida jaan-o-tan – haqeeqat
    Heer ( doli chadhke heer) – heer ranjha
    Phir kisi raah guzar par shayad – ghazal – Jagjit
    Meri tanhaiyon tum hi lagalo – Ghazal – Jagjit
    Yeh dil yeh paagal dil mera – Ghazal Ghulam Ali
    Beshaq mandir masjid todo – bobby

    Raga: Bhatiyar

    Ek ritu aye ek ritu jaye – Jhanak Jhanak Payal Bhaaje

    Raga: Bhimpalasi

    Ai ri main to prem diwani – Navbahar
    Maine chand aur sitaronki- Chandrakanta
    Ye na thi hamari kismat – Mirza Ghalib
    Dil mein tujhe bithake puja – Fakira
    Nainon mein badra chhaye – Mera Saaya
    Jhanakar payalaki tose binati – Naga Devta
    Hum giridha rake ghar jaun – Meera Bhajan
    Samay dhire chalo – Rudaali
    Kismat Se Tum Ham Ko Mile Ho – Pukar
    Ae Ajnabi Tu Bhi Kabhi – DIl SE
    Khilte Hain Gul Yaha – Sharmilee
    Main gareebon ka dil hoon – ab-e-hayat

    Raga: Bhoopali

    Chanda hai tu, mera suraj hai tu – Aradhana
    Sayonara, sayonara – Love in Tokyo
    Pankh hote to ud aati re – Sehraa
    Jyoti kalash chhalke – Bhabhi ki Chudiyaan
    Jab nil gagan ki chhaon mein – Amarapali
    Achyutam keshavam ram – shloka
    Jaun tore charan kamal par vari – Sur Sangam
    Om namah shivay – Bhairavi
    Panchhi banu udti firun mast – Chori Chori
    Dekha ek khwab to yeh silsile – Silsila
    In ankhon ki masti ke, mastane – Umrao Jaan
    Dil hun hun kare – Rudali
    He Govind, He Gopal, He Dayaal – Jagjit singh ghazal…

    Raga: Bhupali Todi

    O zindagi ke denevale – Nagin

    Raga: Bihag

    Tere sur aur mere geet – Goonj Uthi Shehnai
    Koi gata, main so jata – Alaap
    Tere pyar men dildar – Mere Mehboob
    Ae dil beqarar jhum – Shah Jahan
    Hamare dilse na jaanaa – Udan Khatola
    Chalenge tir jab dil par- Kohinoor
    Zindagi ke safar men gujar jate – Aap ki kasam
    Yeh kya jagah hai doston- Umrao jaan
    Meri ladli re, meri ladli – Andaaz
    Tujhe jeevan ki dor se baandh – Asli Naqli
    Hamare dilse na jaanaa -Udan Khatola

    Raga: Bilaskhani Todi
    Jhoothay naina bolay – Lekin
    Diya na bujhegi, aaj hamara

    Raga: Basant Mukhari
    O basanti pavan pagal – Jis Desh Me Ganga Behti Hai
    Vada kar le sajna – Haath ki Safai

    Raga: Chandrakauns
    Tu hi tu main seva karu
    San sanna sanna sanna, jao re o pavan
    Majhi re himmat na har

    Raga: Charukeshi
    Bainya na dharo, o balama – Dastak (old)
    Aaj dilpe koi jor chalta nahin – Milan
    Kabhi raat din hum dur the – Aamne Saamne
    Ek tu na mila – Himalay ki Godmen
    Akele hain chale aao – Raaz
    Bekhudimen sanam kisi rahamen kisi modpar – Mere Humsafar
    Megha re Megha re… – Pyaasa
    Bedardi balama tujh ko, mera man yaad karta hai – Aarzoo
    Shyam teri bansi pukare radha naam – Geet Gata Chal
    Jaan-e-jaana…Jab jab teri surat dekhun – Janbaaz
    Chhod de sari duniya kisike liye – Saraswati Chandra

    Raga: Chhayanat
    Chanda re, ja re ja re – Ziddi (old)
    Baad muddat ki yeh ghadi aayi – Jahan Aara
    Hum bekhudi mein tumko pukaare chale gaye – Kaala Paani
    Tere naina talaash karen jise – Talaash
    Chaina nahin aye, kahan dil jaye – Samundar
    Zan Zan Zan Zan payal baje

    Raga: Darbari
    Ye Hawa Ye Raat Ye Chaandni – Sangdil
    Bahon Ke Darmiyan – Khamoshi (new)

    Raga: Darbari Kanada
    Dil jalta hai to jalne de – Pehli Nazar
    O duniyake rakhawale – Baiju Bawra
    Tute hue khvabonne – Madhumati
    Mohabbat ki jhuthi kahani pe roye – Mugal-e-azam
    Tora man darpan kehlaye – Kaajal
    Daiya re daiya laj mohe lage – Leader
    Guzre hai aaj ishqmen – Dil Diya Dard Liya
    Raha gardishonmen haradam – Do Badan
    Jhanak jhanak tori baje payeliya – Mere Huzoor
    Hum tujh se muhabbat kar ke – Awara
    Teri duniya mein dil lagta nahin – Baware Nain
    Mere mehboob shayad aaj kuchh – Kitne Paas Kitne Door
    Ghoonghat ke pat khol re – Jogan
    Dekha hai pehli baar – Saajan
    Tumhe zindagi ke ujale mubarak – Poornima
    Ishwar satya hai – Satyam Shivam Sundaram
    Kitna hasin hai mausam – Azad
    Hum tum se juda ho ke – Ek Sapera Ek Lutera
    Aap ki nazaron ne samajha – Anpadh
    Ud ja bhanwar maya kamal ka – Rani Roopmati
    Koi matwala ayaa more dware – Love In Tokyo
    Pag ghoongroo bandh meera naachi thi – Namak Halal
    Yaad mein teri jaag jaag ke hum – Mere Mehboob
    Tu pyarka sagar hai – Seema
    Hangama hai kyon barpa – A Ghazal by Ghulam Ali
    Pag ghoongroo bandh meera naachi thi – Namak Halal
    Ab kahan jayen ham – Ujala
    Nainheenko raah dikha prabhu – Bhakta Surdaas
    Shayerana se hai zindagi ke adaa – Phir Teri Kahani Yaad Aye
    Jay Radha madhav Jai kunjbihari – Bhajan by Jagjit Singh

    Raga: Desh
    Phir kahin koi phul khila – Anubhav
    Bekasi hadse jab guzar jaye – Kalpana
    Door Koi Gaaye, dhun yeh sunaye – Baiju Bawra
    Pyaar Hua Chupke se – 1942, A Love Story
    Om jai jagadish hare – Poorab Aur Pashchim
    Phir kahin koi phool khila, chaahat na kaho usko – Anubhav
    Vande mataram

    Raga: Desi
    Aaj gaavat man mero jhumke – Baiju Bawra

    Raga: Durga
    Geet gaya pattharon ne – Geet Gaya Pattharon ne
    Chanda re mori patiya le ja – Miss Mary

    Raga: Dhani

    Prabhu tero nam jo gae phal – Hum Dono

    Raga: Gara
    Tere mere sapne ab ek rang hain – Guide
    Jivanmen piya tera sath rahe – Gunj Uthi Shehnai
    Raghupati raghav raja ram – Bhajan
    Thumak chalat ram chandra – Bhajan
    Aise to na dekho – Teen Deviyan
    Kabhi khud pe kabhi haalat pe ronaa aaya – Hum Dono
    Mohe panghat pe nandlal chher gayo re – Mughal-e-Aazam
    Unke khayaal aaye to aate chale gaye – Lal Patthar

    Raga: Gaud Malhar
    Garajat barsat savan ayo re – Barsaat Ki Raat (old)
    Jhir jhir barase savani ratiyan – Ashirvad

    Raga: Gaud Sarang
    Allah tero naam – Hum Dono
    Naadir deem, ta na dere na – Pardesi

    Raga: Gurjari Todi
    Ek tha bachapan – Ashirvad
    Jaa-jaa re ai pathikwa – Lekin

    TOP

    Raga: Hamir
    Madhuban men radhika nache re – Kohinoor
    Jao re jogi tum – Amrapali

    Raga: Hansdhwani
    Jaa tose nahin boloon kanhaiya – Parivaar

    Raga: Hemant
    Yad piyaki aye – A Thumri by Ustaad Bade Ghulam Ali Khan
    Udajare ja re kaga – Meera bhajan by Lata Mangeshkar
    Tumbin jeevan kaise – by Manna Dey

    Raga: Jaijaiwanti
    Manmohana bade jhoothe, haar ke haar na maanein – Seema
    Bairan ho gai raina – Dekh Kabir Roya
    Zindagi aaj mere namse sharamati hai
    Yeh dilki lagi kam kya hogi – Mugal e Azam
    Dost bankar bhi nahin saath nibhanevala – A Ghazal by Ghulam Ali
    Suni suni saans kay sitaar par – Lal Patthar
    Thumak chalat Ramchandra, baajat paijaniya – Bhajan

    Raga: Jaunpuri
    Dil chher koi aisa naghma – Inspector
    Ghunghat ke pat khol re tohe piya milenge – Jogan
    Jaayen to jaayen kahaan, samjhega kaun yahaan – Taxi Driver
    Meri yaad mein tum na aansu bahaana – Madhosh
    Muhabbat ki jhoothi kahani pe roye – Mughal-E-Azam

    Raga: Jhinjhoti
    Mere mehboob tujhe meri muhabbat ki kasam – Mere Mehboob
    Jaun kahan bataaye dil – Chhoti Bahen
    Tum mujhe yun bhula na pao ge – Pagla Kahin Ka
    Teri ankhoke siva duniyamen – Chirag
    Mose chal kiye jaye hai re hai hai dekho saiyan beiman – Guide
    Ja ja re ja, balmava – Basant Bahar
    Koi hamdam na raha, koi sahara na raha – Jhumroo
    Ghungharoo ki tarah, bajata hi raha hoon main – Chor Machaaye Shor
    Chhup gaya koi re durase pukarake – Champakali

    Raga: Jogiya
    Dil ek mandir – Dil ek mandir hai
    Kah do koi na kare yahaan pyaar – Goonj Uthi Shehnai
    Raat bhar ka hai mehmaan andhera – Sone Ki Chidiya
    Raga: Kafi
    Kali ghodi dwar khadi – Chashme-baddoor
    Biraj me holi khelat nand lal – Godaan
    Gairon pe karam apnon pe sitam – Aankhen (old)

    Raga: Kalavati
    Hay re vo din kyun na aye – Anuradha
    Kahe tarasae jiyara – Chitralekha
    Koi sagar dilko bahalata nahin – Dil Diya Dard Liya
    Hai agar dushman dushman, zamaana ghum nahin – Hum Kisi Se Kam Nahin
    Subah aur sham kamhi kam – Uljhan
    Bhajan bina chain naa aye ram – Rafoochakkar

    Raga: Kalingda
    Mohe bhool gaye saanwariya – Baiju Bawra

    Raga: Kalyan
    Do naina matavale tihare – Choti Bahen
    Janevale se mulakat na hone payi – Amar
    Ansu bhari hai ye jivanki rahe – Parvarish
    Jiya le gayo ji mora savariya – Anpadh
    Mausam hai ashikana – Pakeezah
    Inhi logone le lina dupatta mera – Pakeezah
    Jab dip jale ana – Chit Chor
    Woh sham kuchh ajib thi – Khamoshi (old)
    Chandansa badan chanchal chitavan – Saraswati Chandra
    Apke anurodhpe main ye geet – Anurodh
    Bada dukh dina tere lakhanne – Ram Lakhan Yaad
    “Breathless” – Breathless (Shankar Mahadevan)
    Lagta nahin hai dil mera – Laal Quila
    Man re tu kahe na dhir dhare – Chitralekha
    Saranga teri yaadmen – Saaranga
    Abhi na jao chhodkar – Hum Dono
    Mere humsafar mere paas – Refugee

    Raga: Kamod
    Eri jane na dungi – Chitralekha
    Jao re jogi tum jao re – Amrapali
    Tumko dekha to ye khayal aya – Saath Saath

    Raga: Kedar
    Bekaspe karam kijie – Mugal-e-Azam
    Humko manki shakti dena – Guddi
    Pal do pal ka saath humara – The Burning Train
    Aapki ankhonmen kucch – Ghar
    Bole to basuri kahi – Saawan Ko Aane Do
    Uthaye ja unke sitam – Andaaz (old)
    Main paagal mera manwa paagal – Aashiana

    Raga: Khamaj
    Ayo kahan se ghanashyam – Buddha Mil Gaya
    Bada natkhat hai…ka kare yashoda maiya – Amar Prem
    Vaishnav jan to – Narsinh Mehta Bhajan
    Nazar lagi raja tore bungle par – Kaala Pani
    Kuch to log kahenge – Amar Prem
    Vaishnav jan to taine re kahiye (Bhajan)

    Raga: Kirwani
    Mera dil ye pukare a ja – Nagin
    Yaad na jaye bite dinonki – Dil Ek Mandir
    Meri bhigi-bhigisi palakonpe – Anamika
    Ye raten ye mausam nadika kinara – Dilli Ka Thug
    Nind na mujhako ae – Post box No. 999
    Pukarta chala hun main – Mere Sanam
    Geet gata hun mai – Laal Pathhar
    Anevala pal janevala hai – Golmaal
    Bekaraar dil too gaaye ja – Door Ka Rahi
    Mera dil ye pukaare aaja – Nagin

    Raga: Lalit
    Tu hai mera prem devta – Kalpana
    Ik shahenshahne banvake hansi – Leader
    Pritam daras dikhao – Chacha Zindabad
    Koi paas aya savere savere – A Ghazal by Jagjit Singh
    Tu nahin to mere liye – Tum Yaad Aaye
    Raina biti jaye – Amar Prem

    Raga: Madhuvanti
    Rasm-e-ulfat ko nibhaayen, to nibhaayen kaise – Dil Ki Rahen
    Ko birahini ko dukh jane – Chala Vahi Desh

    Raga: Madhyamad Sarang
    Aa laut ke aaja mere meet – Rani Roopmati

    Raga: Manjh Khammaj
    Kaanha kanha aan padi re tere dwar – Aman
    Jane kaise sapano me kho gai ankhiyan – Anuradha
    Kaise dina bite kaise biti ratiyan piya jane na – Anuradha

    Raga: Malgunji
    Nain so nain nahi milo – Jhanak Jhanak Payal Baaje
    Ghar a ja ghir aye badra – Chhote Nawab
    Unko yeh shikayat hai – Adaalat (old)
    Na jiya lage na – Anand

    Raga: Malkauns
    Man tarapat hari darshanko – Baiju Bawra
    Aadha hai chandrama rat adhi – Navrang
    Tu chhupi hai kahan – Navrang
    Aaye sur ke panchhi aaye – Sur Sangam
    Ye kahani hai diyeki aur tufanaki – Tufan aur Diya
    O pavanvegase udanevale ghode – Jai Chaittaur
    Ankhiyana sang ankhiya lagi aaj – Bada Aadmi
    Deep jalaye jo – Kalakaar

    Raga: Mand
    Tu chanda main chandani – Reshma aur Shera
    Kesariya Balam – Lekin
    Ab to hai tumse har khushi apni – Abhimaan
    Piya piya bole mora kangana – Swarg Nark
    Bachpan ki mohabbat ko – Baiju Baawara
    Dheemo re chale re vaayariyo – Album (Piya Basanti)

    Raga: Maru Bihag
    Matwaali naar thumak thumak
    Tum to pyar ho sajna – Sehra
    Jamunaa kinare aaja chaliya pukare aaja – Mehbooba

    Raga: Marwa
    Payeliya bavari – Saaz aur Aawaz

    Raga: Megh
    Mahefil men baar baar kisi par nazar gai – A Ghazal by Gulam Ali
    Konpalen phir fut ayi – A Ghazal by Mehdi Hassan
    Kahan se aye badra – Chashm-e-Badoor

    Raga: Megh Malhar
    Dukh bhare din bite re bhaiya – Mother India
    Tan rangalo ji aaj man ranga lo baraso re – Tansen
    Kare kare badra – by Lata Mangeshkar
    Ghata ghana ghora ghora – Tansen

    Raga: Miyan Ki Malhar
    Bole re papihara – Guddi
    Bhay bhanjana vandana sun humari – Basant Bahar
    Baadal umad bhar aaye – Saaz
    Ghir ghir aayi badariya kaari – Sardari Begum

    Raga: Miya ki Todi
    Bhini bhini bhor aayi – Asha Bhosle’s Album ‘Dil Padosi Hai’

    Raga: Mohanam (Carnatic)
    Jyoti Kalas Jalke – Bhabhi Ki Chudiyaan

    Raga : Multani
    Daya karo e girdhar-gopala
    Raga: Nand
    Tu jahan jahan chalega – Mera Saaya

    Raga: Pahadi
    Sunri sakhi mohe sajna bulae – Nagin
    O durke musaphir hamko bhi sath le le – Udan Khatola
    Are ja re hato natakhat – Navrang
    Chal ud jaa re panchi – Bhabhi
    Koi pyaar ki dekhe jadugari – Kohinoor
    Sakhi ri mera man umade tana dole – Nagin
    Chaudavika chand ho – Chaudavi Ka Chand
    Ye vadiyan phijae bula rahi – Aaj aur Kal
    Tujhko pukare mera pyar – Neel Kamal
    Aja re tujhko mera pyar pukare – Waqt
    Do sitaaron ka zameen par hai milan aaj ki raat – Waqt
    Din hai bahar ke tere mere – Waqt
    Kaun aya hai nigahonmen chamak jag uthi – Waqt
    Hum jab simatake aapki bahonmen – Waqt
    Janevalo jara mudke dekho mujhe – Dosti
    Chaahoonga main tujhe saanjh savere – Dosti
    Gudiya hamse ruthi rahogi – Dosti
    Lag ja gale ke phir ye hansi raat – Woh kaun thi?
    Vahan kaun hai tera musaphir – Guide
    Dil pukare aa re aa re – Jewel Thief
    Rulake gaya sapna mera – Jewel Thief
    Chalo dildaar chalo – Pakeezah
    Aaja re, aaja re o mere dilbar aaja – Noorie
    Kabhi kabhi mere dilmein – Kabhi Kabhi
    Isharon isharon mein dil lenewale – Kashmir Ki Kali
    Aaj ki raat mere dil ki salaami le le – Ram Aur Shyam
    Neela aasman so gayaa – Silsila
    Javaan hai mohabbat, hasin hai zamaana – Anmol Ghadi
    Jo waada kiya wo nibhaana parega – Taj Mahal
    Kora kaagaz tha ye man mera – Aaradhana
    Meri aankhon mein bas gaya koi re – Barsat
    O door ke musaafir, ham ko bhi saath le le – Udan Khatola
    O mora naadaan baalama na jaane dil ki baat – Ujala
    Saawan ka mahina, pawan kare sor – Milan
    Shaam dhale khidki tale tum seeti bajaana chhor do – Albela
    Suhaani raat dhal chuki, na jaane tum kab aayoge – Dulari
    Tere mere honthon pe, meethe meethe geet mitava – Chaandani
    Paayo ji maine ram ratan dhan paayo (Bhajan)
    Aapko dekhke baadal ko pasinaa – Hum Aapke Dilmen Rahte Hai

    Raga: Palasi
    Gori tera gaanv bada pyara – Chit Chor

    Raga: Patdeep
    Saaz ho tum awaz hun main – Saaz aur Aawaz
    Megha chhaye adhi raat – Sharmilee

    Raga: Pilu
    Ajahun na aye balma – Sanjh Aur Savera
    Jhoole mein pavanki ayi bahar – Baiju Bawra
    More sainya ji utarenge paar nadiya dhire baho – Uran Khatola
    Dheere se aaja ri akhiyan mein nindiya – Albela
    Banwari Re Jeene Ka Sahara – Ek Phool Char Kante
    Jaiye aap kahan jayenge – Mere Sanam
    Dhoondho dhoondho re saajna – Ganga Jamuna
    Allah megh de pani de – Guide
    Kali ghata chhaye mora jiya ghabraye – Sujata
    Tere bin soone nayan hamare – Meri Soorat Teri Aankhein
    Pi ke ghar aaj pyari dulhaniya chali babul – Mother India
    Nadiya kinare harayee aayee kangna – Abhiman
    Ab ke baras bhejo bhaiya ko babul – Bandini
    Baharon ne mera chaman loot kar – Devar
    Kaun gali gaye shyam – Pakeezah
    Tu jo mere sur men – Chitchor
    Na jao saiyan chhuda ke baiyan – Sahib Biwi Aur Ghulam
    Din sara guzara tore angana – Junglee
    Mainu ishq lag gaya rog – Dil Hai Ke Maanta Nahin
    Surmayi akhiyonmen nanha munna ek sapna de jaa re – Sadma
    Apni kaho kuch meri suno – Parchhain
    Ai meri johara zabeen, tujhe maaloom nahin – Waqt
    Chandan ka palana resham ki dori – Shabab
    More kaanha jo aaye palat ke – Sardari Begum
    Raghuvar tumako meri laaj (Bhajan)

    Raga: Puriya Dhanashri


    Tori Jai Jai Kartaar – Baiju Bawra
    Ruk jao banavasi ram – Sampurna Ramayan
    Rut aa gayi re, rut chha gayi re – 1947:Earth
    Hai rama yeh kya hua – Rangeela
    Meri sanson ko jo mehaka rahi hai – Badalte Rishtey
    Tumne kya kya kiya hai hamare liye – Prem Geet

    Raga: Rageshri


    Mohabbat aisi dhadkan hai – Anarkali
    Mere sang ga gunguna – Janwar
    Kaun aaya mere manke dwaare – Dekh Kabira Roya
    Mitva bole mithe bain – Parichay

    Raga: Sarang


    Aa laut ke aaja mere meet – Rani Roopmati
    Savan aye ya na aye – Dil Diya Dard Liya
    Dair-o-harammen basne waalon – Ghazal by Jagjit Singh
    Saawan rut aaye dekho balam – Album (Piya Basanti)

    Raga: Shudh Kalyan


    Chand phir nikala – Paying Guest
    Meri muhabbat javan rahegi – Janwar
    Jahaan daal daal par sone ki cheediyaan – Sikandar-e-Azam
    Chaand phir nikala, magar tum na aaye – Paying Guest
    Rasik balama – Chori Chori

    Raga: Shankara
    Rumajhuma rumajhuma chala tihari – Tansen
    Bolo bolo kanha bolo chhaliya – Chhaliya

    Raga: Shivranjani
    Aawaz deke hamem tum bulao – Professor
    Jaane kahaan gaye wo din – Mera Naam Joker
    Sansar hai ek nadiya – Raftaar
    Khabar meri naa lini re bahut din bite – Sant Gyaneshwar
    Mere naina savan bhado – Mehbooba
    Banake kyun bigada re – Zanjeer
    Ai mere sanam ai mere sanam, do jism magar ek jaan – Sangam
    Dil ke jharokhe mein tujhko bithakar – Bramhachari
    Tere mere beech mein – Ek Duje ke liye
    Kahin deep jale kahin dil – Bees Saal Baad
    Tumhe dekhti hun to lagta hai aise – Tumhare Liye
    Bahaaro phool barasaao, mera mehboob aaya hai – Suraj
    Yaad teri aayegi, mujhko bara sataayegi – Ek Jaan Hain Ham

    Raga: Sindh Bhairavi
    Ajahun na aye balma – Sanjh Aur Savera
    Chhod gaye balam – Barsaat (old)

    Raga: Sohni
    Jhumati gayi hawa, yaad aa gaya koi – Sangeet Samrat Tansen
    Kuhu kuhu bole koyaliya – Swarn Sundari
    Prem jogan ban ke – Mughal-e-Azam

    Raga: Sur Malhar
    Dar lage garaje badariya – Ram Rajya

    Raga: Tilang
    Chhup gaye saare nazaare hoye kya baat ho gayi – Do Raaste
    Chota sa baalama akhiyaan neend udaaye le gayo – Ragini
    Rehte the kabhi jinake dil mein ham jaan se bhi – Mamta
    Yahi armaan lekar aaj apne – Shabab
    Itna to yaad hai mujhe – Mehboob ki Mehndi
    Meri kahani bhulnevale – Deedar
    Sajna sang kahe neha lagae – Main Nashe Me Hun
    Lagan tose lagi balma – Dekh Kabir Roya

    Raga: Tilak Kamod
    Dil-e-nadaan tujhe hua kya – Mirza Ghalib
    Tumhare bin ji na lage gharmen – Bhumika
    Jalta rahata din raina

    Raga: Todi
    Insan bano – Baiju Bawra
    Mai to ek khvab hun – Himalaya Ki God Mein
    Duniya na bhaye mohe, ab to bulale – Basant Bahar
    Sun rasiya sun rasiya, kaahe ko jalaaye jiya aaja – Nagin
    Too hai mera prem devta – Kalpana
    Khuda e baratara teri jaminpar – Taj Mahal

    Raga: Vrindavani Sarang
    Jhutimuti batiya avan kahe – Rudali

    Raga: Yaman
    Aansu bhari hain ye jeevan ki raahein – Parvarish
    Aap ke anurodh pe, main ye geet sunaata hoon – Anurodh
    Bhooli huyi yaadon, mujhe itna na sataao – Sanjog
    Chandan sa badan, chanchal chitavan – Saraswati Chandra
    Chupa lo dil mein yoon pyaar mera – Mamta
    Do naina matawaare tihaare, ham par zulm karen – Chhoti Bahan
    Inhi logon ne le leena dupatta mera – Pakeezah
    Jaane vaale se mulaaqaat na hone paayi – Amar
    Jab deep jale aana, jab shaam dhale aana – Chitchor
    Jiya le gayo re mora saanwariya – Anpadh
    Mausam hai aashikaana, ai dil kahin se unko – Pakeezah
    Nigahen milane ko jee chahata hai – Dil Hi To Hai
    O ram ji, bada dukh deena – Ram Lakhan
    Woh shaam kuchh ajeeb thi, ye shaam bhi ajeeb hai – Khamoshi
    Ranjish hi sahi, dil hi dukhane ke liye aa (Ghazal)

    Raga: Yaman Kalyan
    Abhi na jayo chhor kar, ke dil abhi bhara nahi – Hum Dono
    Ahsaan tera hoga mujh par – Junglee
    Beeti na bitaayi raina – Parichay
    Is mor se jaate hain – Aandhi
    Lagta nahin hai dil mera – Laal Quila
    Preetam aan milo
    Saaranga teri yaad mein, nain huye bechain – Saaranga
    Tere husn ki kya taarif karoon – Leader
    Wo jab yaad aaye, bahut yaad aaye – Parasmani
    Zindagi bhar naheen bhoolegi wo barsaat ki raat – Barsaat Ki Raat
    Aaj jaane ki zid na karo (Geet)
    Shri ram chandra kripaalu bhaj man (Bhajan)

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  • Lahore a launchpad for many filmstars and singers

    LAHORE: Many high profile Indian actors and singers lived in the Walled City in the 1940s and Lakshmi Chowk was where the film fraternity got together in tongas decorated with maroon flowers, foot bells and lamps on the side.

    The tonga was the primary means of transport for the ordinary and elite in the 40s. Most tongas were undecorated, but the ones used by the elite were special and fascinating.

    Indian superstars Pran, Muhammad Rafi, Om Parkash, Balraj Sani, Dev Anand and many less known artistes started their film careers from Lahore. The film life in Lahore was very high profile and animated in those days. Lakshmi Chowk was the hot spot for formal and informal film gatherings.

    Pran, who mostly played the role of a villain in films, lived in Qilla Gujjar Singh. He was a skilled photographer and took photographs of famous artistes. One day – while standing at a pan shop in Lakshmi Chowk – he met Wali, a leading film director of the time. Wali asked Pran if he was interested in acting and Pran said yes. Wali wrote the address of Pancholi Studios (one of the most famous film studios of Lahore in Muslim Town) on the back of a cigarette pack and asked Pran to see one of his friends there.

    Pran started his film career with ‘Chaudhry’ and later appeared as a hero in ‘Khaandaan’, a film by Shaukat Hussain Rizvi. The heroine was melody queen Noor Jahan. Pran migrated to Bombay in 1947.

    The subcontinent’s legendary singer Muhammad Rafi lived in Bhaati Gate. He was from a family of barbers and ran his own barbershop. Rafi had a beautiful voice and most of his customers would often ask him to sing for them while they got their hair cut or got a shave. A man from the film industry introduced Rafi to film director Gul Baloch who gave Rafi the opportunity to sing three songs for ‘Gul Zaman’. The film proved a launching point for Rafi’s film career in Lahore and by the time he migrated to India in 1947, he was an accomplished singer. In Bombay Rafi got a breakthrough in ‘Jugnoo’. The hero was Dilip Kumar and heroine Noor Jehan. Om Parkash was also one of the great names of Bombay. He lived at Matti Chowk, Lohari Gate and always rented out a decorated tonga to take him from Matti Chowk to Lakshmi Chowk every day. Parkash did many small and large roles in films made in Lahore and also migrated to India in 1947.

    Balraj Sani also lived at Matti Chowk and was the secretary general of the All India Communist Party. He studied at Government College. Sani also acted in pre-Partition films in Lahore. Dev Anand lived in Lohari Gate, but later moved to Bhaati Gate. He also studied at Government College. Dev Anand participated actively in politics in Lahore. His brother Chaitan Anand was a famous film director in Lahore and was considered quite influential in film studios when it came to casting and other affairs.

    Meena Shori was one of the leading female actors of her times. She lived in Bhaati Gate and married the owner of Shori Film Studio (now Shah Noor Studio). She acted in several pre-Partition films made in Lahore and migrated to India in 1947. In 1956 she returned to Pakistan to act in ‘Ms 56’ and never went back to India. She accepted Islam and started living in Lahore. BR Chopra is a leading name in production and direction in the Indian film industry. Chopra lived in an area where at present Chuburji Quarters exist. He produced a film in Lahore called ‘Chandni Chowk’. Khayam, one of the leading music composers of the Indian film industry, was his assistant and served him and his guests tea.

    Khurshid Begum was an outstanding singer from Lahore who migrated to India in 1947. She also lived in Bhaati Gate. She sang several famous songs for various Indian films. She sang a great song for film ‘Tan Sain’ with singer Sehgal. She returned to Pakistan after a few years and started living in Karachi.

    Tanveer Naqvi was a noted lyricist of his times. He lived in Faqirkhana Museum inside Bhaati Gate. He wrote ‘Awaz Dey Kahan Hai’ and ‘Jaan-e-Baharan, Rashk-e-Chaman’. He migrated to India in 1947. Naqvi also returned to Pakistan after a few years and spent the rest of his life in Lahore. Lakshmi Chowk was the focal point of Lahore’s film industry crowd. By the evening, Lakshmi would be full of tongas, with film stars, top film directors and producers thronging teahouses and discussing filmy affairs. Pran, Om Parkash and Al Nasir, another Lahori film hero, would spend their evenings chatting and playing billiards.

    There also was a hotel called King Circle at Lakshmi Chowk where film stars gathered. A bank has taken its place these days. Even today Lakshmi Chowk is a major centre of filmi Lahore.
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  • Ragas

    Rāga (Sanskrit, lit. "colour" or "mood") refers to melodic modes used in Indian classical music. It is a series of five or more musical notes upon which a melody is made. In the Indian musical tradition, rāgas are associated with different times of the day, or with seasons. Indian classical music is always set in a rāga. Non-classical music such as popular Indian film songs or ghazals sometimes use rāgas in their compositions.

    The word "raga" first occurs in the Brihaddeshi of Matanga (circa second century AD or 5th to 7th century), where he describes it as "a combination of tones which, with beautiful illuminating graces, pleases the people in general". The term raga was defined by Joep Bor of the Rotterdam Conservatory of Music as "tonal framework for composition and improvisation." Nazir Jairazbhoy, chairman of UCLA's department of ethnomusicology, characterized ragas as separated by scale, line of ascent and descent, transilience, emphasized notes and register, and intonation and ornaments.

    Rāgini is an archaic term for the 'feminine' counterpart to a rāga.

    Nature of rāga

    "That which is a special dhwani (tune), is bedecked with swara (notes) and varna and is colorful or delightful to the minds of the people, is said to be rāga" - Matanga in the Brihaddeshi.
    The basic mode of reference in modern Hindustani practice (known commonly as the shuddha - basic - form) is a set which is equivalent to the Western Ionian mode — this is called Bilawal thaat in Hindustani music (the Carnatic analogue would be Sankarabharanam). In both systems, the ground (or tonic), Shadja, Sa, and a pure fifth above, Pancham, Pa, are fixed and essentially sacrosanct tones. In the Hindustani system, in a given seven-tone mode, the second, third, sixth, and seventh notes can be natural (shuddha, lit. 'pure') or flat (komal, 'soft') but never sharp, and the fourth note can be natural or sharp (tivra) but never flat, making up the twelve notes in the Western equal tempered chromatic scale (Western enharmonic pitch equivalences like, for example, A♯ and B♭ do not apply; e.g. Re tivra may, to a Western musician appear enharmonic to Ga shuddha in that system, but in practice is not.) A Western-style C scale could therefore theoretically have the notes C, D♭, D, E♭, E, F, F♯, G, A♭, A, B♭, B.

    The Carnatic system has three versions — a lower, medium, and higher form — of all the notes except Sa, Ma and Pa. Ma has two versions (lower and higher), while Sa and Pa are invariant. Rāgas can also specify microtonal changes to this scale: a flatter second, a sharper seventh, and so forth. Tradition has it that the octave consists of (a division into) 22 microtones ("śrutis"). Furthermore, individual performers treat pitches quite differently, and the precise intonation of a given note depends on melodic context. There is no absolute pitch (such as the modern western standard A = 440 Hz); instead, each performance simply picks a ground note, which also serves as the drone, and the other scale degrees follow relative to the ground note. The Carnatic system embarks from a much different shuddha (fundamental) scalar formation, that is, shuddha here is the lowest-pitched swara.

    By comparison, using the common tonic "C" for a western musician:

    Carnatic
    Hindustani Western E.T.
    Sa
    Sa "C"
    Shuddha Ri "Ri 1" Komal Re "D"
    Chatusruti Ri "Ri 2" Shuddha Re "D"
    Shatsruti Ri "Ri 3" (Komal Ga) "D"
    Shuddha Ga "Ga 1" (Shuddha Re) "D"
    Sadharana Ga "Ga 2" Komal Ga "E"
    Antara Ga "Ga 3" Shuddha Ga "E"
    Shuddha Ma "Ma 1" Shuddha Ma "F"
    Prati Ma "Ma 2" Teevra Ma "F"
    Pa
    Pa "G"
    Shuddha Dha "Dha 1" Komal Dha "A"
    Chatusruti Dha "Dha 2" Shuddha Dha "A"
    Shatsruti Dha "Dha 3" (Komal Ni) "A"
    Shuddha Ni "Ni 1" (Shuddha Dha) "A"
    Kaisika Ni "Ni 2" Komal Ni "B"
    Kakali Ni "Ni 3" Shuddha Ni "B"

    Rāgas and their seasons

    Many Hindustani (North Indian) rāgas are prescribed a time of day or a season. When performed at the suggested time, the rāga has its maximum effect. During the monsoon, for example, many of the Malhar group of rāgas, which are associated with the monsoon and ascribed the magical power to bring rain, are performed. However, these prescriptions are not strictly followed, especially since modern concerts are generally held in the evening. There has also been a growing tendency over the last century for North Indian musicians to adopt South Indian rāgas, which do not come with any particular time associated with them. The result of these various influences is that there is increasing flexibility as to when rāgas may be performed.

    Notations

    Although notes are an important part of rāga practice, they alone do not make the rāga. A rāga is more than a scale. Many rāgas share the same scale. The underlying scale may have five, six or seven tones made up of swaras. Rāgas that have five swaras are called audava (औडव) rāgas; those with six, shaadava (षाडव); and with seven, sampoorna (संपूर्ण) (Sanskrit for 'complete'). Those rāgas that do not follow the strict ascending or descending order of swaras are called vakra (वक्र) ('crooked') rāgas.
    It is the mood of the rāga that is more important than the notes it comprises. For example, Rāga Darbari Kanada and Rāga Jaunpuri share the same notes but are entirely different in their renderings.

    Northern and southern differences

    The two streams of Indian classical music, Carnatic music and Hindustani music, have independent sets of rāgas. There is some overlap, but more "false friendship" (where rāga names overlap, but rāga form does not). In north India, the rāgas have been categorised into ten thaats or parent scales (by Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande, 1860-1936); South India uses an older, more systematic classification scheme called the melakarta classification, with 72 parent (melakarta) rāgas. Overall there is a greater identification of rāga with scale in the south than in the north, where such an identification is impossible. Rāgas in north Indian music system follow the 'law of consonances' established by Bharata in his Natyashastra, which does not tolerate deviation even at the shruti level.

    As rāgas were transmitted orally from teacher to student, some rāgas can vary greatly across regions, traditions and styles. There have been efforts to codify and standardise rāga performance in theory from their first mention in Matanga's Brihaddeshi (c. tenth century).

    Carnatic rāga

    In Carnatic music, rāgas are classified as Janaka rāgas and Janya rāgas. Janaka rāgas are the rāgas from which the Janya rāgas are created. Janaka rāgas are grouped together using a scheme called Katapayadi sutra and are organised as Melakarta rāgas. A Melakarta rāga is one which has all seven notes in both the ārōhanam (ascending scale) and avarōhanam (descending scale). Some Melakarta rāgas are Harikambhoji, Kalyani, Kharaharapriya, Mayamalavagowla, Sankarabharanam and Todi.

    Janya rāgas are derived from the Janaka rāgas using a combination of the swarams (usually a subset of swarams) from the parent rāga. Some janya rāgas are Abheri, Abhogi, Bhairavi, Hindolam and Kambhoji. See the full List of Janya Ragas for more.

    Each rāga has a definite collection and orders of swaras (the basic notes). In Carnatic music, there are 7 basic notes of which there are 12 varieties. The seven basic swarams of Carnatic music are: Sa, Ri, Ga, Ma, Pa, Da, Ni.

    Related rāgas

    Even though Janya rāgas are subsets of Janaka rāgas in notation and representation, the differences between the child ragas are clear due to the differences like

    some notes that figure more in a particular rāga compared to another, while other notes used sparingly
    some notes may be sung with gamaka, stress, elongation, etc., in one rāga compared to other
    specific phrases used and other phrases to be avoided in a rāga (so as to avoid deviation into another rāga's domain)
    the scales of some ragas may contain at least one swara that does not figure in their janaka ragas. Such ragas are termed as bhashanga ragas. Ragas such as Bhairavi, Kambodhi, Bilahari, Devagandhari, and Neelambari fall under this category.
    The effect of the rāgas are different from each other, even if they notationally use same swarams (or subset of swarams between each other) due to above subjective differences related to bhava and rasa (mood caused in the listener). The artists have to ensure the same when elaborating on a rāga, as has been followed and expected on each rāga, without digressing into the phrases of another related rāga. As we all know, science and notations cannot fully represent emotions and feelings.

    Rāga-rāgini

    The rāga-rāgini scheme is an old classification scheme used from the 14th century to the 19th century. It usually consists of 6 'male' rāgas each with 6 'wives'(rāginis) and a number of sons (putras) and even 'daughters-in-law'. As it did not agree with various other schemes, and the 'related' rāgas had very little or no similarity, the rāga-rāgini scheme is no longer very popular.

    Rāgas and rāginis were often pictured as Hindu gods, Rajput princes and aristocratic women in an eternal cycle of love, longing and fulfilment.
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  • Raga Darbari Kanada -- the majestic gait and its tonal geometry

    Raga Darbari Kanada has often been described as the Emperor of Ragas and the Raga of Emperors. These descriptions recall the raga’s association with Miya Tansen at Akbar’s court, and the majesty of the Mughal Empire at its zenith. But, such imagery could not have either surfaced, or survived through the centuries, if it had not also been supported by the melodic character of the raga.


    The key to the majestic aloofness of the raga lies in the ponderous deliberateness with which it has to be rendered. This “ponderous deliberateness” of musical expression owes itself primarily to the “andolit” (oscillated) treatment of two swaras – komal Ga, and komal Dh – in the ascent as well as the descent. These two oscillations are fundamental to the sculpting of the two phrases which virtually define the melodic personality of Darbari Kanada – [g M R] and [d n P].


    These oscillations around (komal) Ga and Dh swaras define a very specific treatment or intonation of these swaras in Darbari. Some authorities even believe that Darbari does not use the common (komal) Ga and Dh pitch-ratios to base-Sa. Instead, it uses their suppressed micro-swaras (shrutis). According to this view, these suppressed micro-swaras are accessible only as suggestions arising from an oscillation between the natural Re and the flat Ga (for komal Ga) and between Pa and the flat Dh (for komal Dh).


    In imparting a sensitivity to these nuances of Darbari Kanada to their disciples, traditionally trained Gurus have often used very obscure language and imagery. The logic of these oscillations is, however, easily understood through acoustic principles -- essentially, the tonal geometry of the two pivotal phrases of the raga: g-M-R and d-n-P.


    The first and last swaras in these phrases, Re-Pa and Ma-Ni, are in perfect first-fourth correspondence with a ratio of 1.333 between them. But, the linking swaras, (komal) Ga and (komal) Dh are only in near-perfect correspondence with a ratio of 1.367 between them.

    To achieve a symmetry between the lower and upper halves of the Darbari Kanada scale, the two pivotal phrases need to be in perfect phraseological congruence. This is not possible until (komal) Ga and (komal) Dh are brought into perfect acoustic correspondence with each other.


    The oscillated treatment of (komal) Ga and Dh explores the relevant microtonal regions for the possibility of tonal correspondence and phraseological congruence. The melodic soul of the raga expresses itself in these explorations.

    The aesthetic demands of this tonal geometry might explain why great musicians often favour slow tempo renditions in this raga, and avoid the flattening out of the prescribed oscillations in ultra high-density melodic execution.

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  • Ustad Bade Ghulam Ali Khan

    A nonagenarian, aesthete and scholar of high repute, M.A.Sheikh has been associated with the musical circles of Lahore for almost 70 years and has seen profound changes taking place to classical music. "Yaadein" or Memories is a reflection of M.A. Sheikh's memorable moments in classical music. In his fourth article of Yaadein, M.A. Sheikh writes on an historic ceremony known as “shakkar” involving the late Ustad Bade Ghulam Ali Khan, paying homage to Ustad Akhtar Hussain Khan and Ustad Ashiq Ali Khan at the Takia Meerasian in Lahore

    Lahore in 1932/33 was a peaceful city marked by mutual brotherhood and simple living. Commonly referred as to the “City of Gardens”, Lahore was devoid of today’s hustle bustle, materialism and pollution filled atmosphere. The main transport system consisted of cycles and tongas whilst the sight of cars plying the city was extremely rare. The pursuits of wrestling and kite flying were amongst the favourite pastimes of the residents, whilst monuments like the Shalimar gardens and Jahangir’s tomb were popular places for picnics and relaxation. Music was considered an integral feature of the city’s cultural activities with countless baithaks, regular music concerts and recorded music of Zohra Bai Agrewali, Bhai Chaila, Maujuddin Khan and others being heard in the main shopping centres.

    In these days a grand function was held at the Takia Meerasian, Chamberlaine Road, outside Mocchi Gate Lahore in which Ustad Bade Ghulam Ali Khan confirmed his ties with the Patiala gharana through a ceremony known as “shakkar”, in which he offered his allegiance to Ustad Akhtar Hussain Khan and Ustad Ashiq Ali Khan, the scions of the Patiala Gharana.

    It was perhaps the month of October and about 1pm that the music lovers of Lahore started gathering at the “Takia”, by the evening the crowd swelled to over a thousand. The “Takia” was profusely decorated with buntings, carpets and flowers. Large trays filled with sweets were at hand and we could smell the beautiful aroma of food being cooked. The people were excited and embraced each other with greetings and an atmosphere of cheerfulness pervaded all over. Those who were present on this occasion with me were music directors Khawaja Khurshid Anwar and Feroze Nizami, Syed Shabbir Hussain Shah, film actor Gul Zaman, vocalist Ustad Chotey Ghulam Ali Khan, and sarangi player Ustad Nazim Ali Khan.

    Ustad Akhtar Hussain Khan and Ustad Ashiq Ali Khan were both sitting at a specially created dais, which was decorated with flowers, carpets, white sheets, and bolsters. A sarangi, tanpura and tabla were placed close by. Ustad Akhtar Hussain Khan was wearing an achkan shining with gold embroidery, a white chooridar pajama, a black folding cap and a red scarf. Ustad Ashiq Ali Khan on the other hand was attired in a dark brown suit, which was designed as a polo outfit with bulging trousers and a short coat with four pockets. Ustad Bade Ghulam Ali Khan was wearing a sprawling white turban, a loose white shirt with a beautiful scarf and a white dhoti.

    The ceremony started with the words “Bismillah Sharif” and tying of the “gandha” to Bade Ghulam Ali Khan by the two ustads. This was followed by the distribution of sweets amongst the two ustads and various disciples. Ustad Bade Ghulam Ali Khan presented the two maestros with gifts and money known as the “nazarana”. Innumerable people then followed by presenting nazaranas to the two ustads. There was vociferous clapping and loud shouts of greetings all around. A little later the music concert started. Ustad Ashiq Ali Khan sang raag Marwa for about one hour and the audience was completely overwhelmed with his pure imagery of raag, vigorous tonal variations, inimitable flow of convoluted phraseology and unique rhythmic control. Ustad Akhtar Hussain Khan and Ustad Bade Ghulam Ali Khan were also requested to perform but they politely declined.

    This unforgettable ceremony is still recalled by many people, in Punjabi musical parlance it is known as “shakkar” and shares similar traits to the traditional “gandha bandhan” ceremony. The gandha bandhan ceremony is core to the lifelong traditional teacher – student relationship necessary to learning the musical arts in the Indian sub-continent. The ceremony is conducted by the teacher tying a thread (gandha) around the student’s wrist and certifies that the student has become a formal disciple and ready to show commitment in learning music. The union is not just from a musical sense but involves a spiritual attachment between the teacher and student.

    The shakkar ceremony on the other hand, is only conducted when the disciple achieves a high level of musical proficiency. It is a celebration of the student’s achievement and enables the student to pay homage to his teachers and fellow members of the gharana in the form of gifts and monetary amounts.

    I consider it an honour and privilege to have been present on this historical occasion and at the request of Ustad Fateh Ali Khan of the Patiala gharana and son of Ustad Akhtar Hussain Khan have recorded details of the mentioned above ceremony in a video interview. Some years before his death, Ustad Munawar Ali Khan, the son of Ustad Bade Ghulam Ali Khan visited Lahore and complained to Mr. Hayat Ahmed Khan the Secretary General of the All Pakistan Music Conference Lahore that there was great confusion about the incident as a lot of people held the view that his father was only a disciple of Ustad Ashiq Ali Khan and not of Ustad Akhtar Hussain Khan. Consequently a meeting was arranged at the residence of Mr. Hayat Ahmed Khan in which I personally explained my eyewitness account of this historic ceremony. He was convinced and stated that he would set the record straight on his return to India. However in a recent comprehensive book written by Mrs Malti Gilani and Qurat-ul-ain Haider titled Ustad Bade Ghulam Ali Khan, His Life and Music, published by Harman House Delhi in 2003, no mention whatsoever has been made of this ceremony, which is deeply regretful. Read more »
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